Advice is evolving along with the coronavirus. Here's the latest from staff and wire reports.

Where can I see Minnesota's COVID-19 numbers?

Check our COVID tracker.

Where can I get a vaccine?

Check the state of Minnesota's Vaccine Connector or the national Vaccine Spotter.

How many Minnesotans are vaccinated?

More than 3.5 million Minnesotans have received at least a first dose — 74.2% of the eligible 12 and older population, according to CDC data. The actual rate is higher, though, because the state count doesn't include shots administered by federal agencies such as the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and the Indian Health Service. However, that progress varies by race.

State data shows that 58% of vaccine recipients have received Pfizer doses while 37.6% received Moderna and 4.5% received Johnson & Johnson.

What is the new Docket app?

Minnesota introduced the Docket app for viewing personal immunization records in response to rising demand — largely because of more COVID-19 vaccination requirements by employers and organizations. State leaders said this is not a prelude toward a COVID-19 vaccine passport or government vaccination requirement.

How prevalent is the delta variant?

The extremely transmissible delta variant of the coronavirus, which overtook all other variants in the United States just a few months ago, now represents more than 99% of cases tracked in the country, according to the data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Is there a federal vaccine mandate?

President Joe Biden announced sweeping new federal vaccine requirements affecting as many as 100 million Americans.

The rules mandate that all employers with more than 100 workers require them to be vaccinated or test for the virus weekly, affecting about 80 million Americans. The roughly 17 million workers at health facilities that receive federal Medicare or Medicaid also will have to be fully vaccinated.

The requirement for large companies will be enacted through a forthcoming rule from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration that carries penalties of $14,000 per violation, an administration official said.

Biden is also signing an executive order to require vaccination for employees of the executive branch and contractors who do business with the federal government — with no option to test out. That covers several million more workers.

Separately, the Department of Health and Human Services will require vaccinations in Head Start Programs, as well as schools run by the Department of Defense and Bureau of Indian Education, affecting about 300,000 employees.

What does the mandate mean for Minnesota employers?

In Minnesota, the new orders will affect about 4,800 businesses which employ about 1.4 million Minnesotans. That is about half of the state's total workforce.

For Maplewood-based 3M, it was a clear directive: "We intend to comply with the mandate," the company said in a statement. Many companies said they were still awaiting details on the new regulations. Read more here.

Can I still get the $100 Minnesota vaccine incentive?

The $100 reward program offered by the state of Minnesota has ended.

Gov. Tim Walz on Thursday unveiled a $100 incentive for vaccine recipients at select clinics and health centers in communities hit hardest by the pandemic. The incentives will total $100 in value but could range from Visa gift cards to grocery store vouchers.

Ramsey County announced its own $100 Visa gift card program for people who get their first shot at a clinic operated by theSt. Paul-Ramsey County Public Health Department. The program is open to everyone, regardless of county residence.

Hennepin County is offering $50 Visa gift cards per shot to anyone who gets vaccinated at a Hennepin County vaccine clinic or event, while supplies last.

Is the state operating testing sites?

Minnesota has reopened free COVID-19 testing sites in St. Paul and Bloomington and has several others.

What is a COVID-19 vaccine "breakthrough" case?

It's when a fully vaccinated person gets infected with the coronavirus. While the vaccines are very good at protecting us from the virus, it's still possible to get infected with mild or no symptoms, or even to get very sick.

If you do end up getting sick despite vaccination, experts say the shots help reduce the severity of the illness — the main reason to get vaccinated. But one important question about breakthrough infection that remains unanswered is: Can the vaccinated develop so-called long COVID?

What is the "breakthrough" rate in Minnesota?

The breakthrough infection total has reached 23,330, making up 0.75% of the state's fully vaccinated population and including 1,268 hospitalizations and 118 COVID-19 deaths, according to a weekly report released Sept. 20 by the Minnesota Department of Health.

Vaccinated people with COVID-19 are taking up more hospital beds, but new data from the Allina Health and HealthPartners hospital systems show that they often have milder illnesses that don't require intensive care.

What's the mu variant?

Since being discovered in Colombia in January, the mu variant has spread to nearly four dozen countries. Health officials believe mu is even more transmissible than the delta variant and has the potential to resist vaccines.

Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said that health officials were maintaining a "close eye" on the mu variant despite it being "not at all even close" to becoming the dominant COVID-19 strain in the U.S.

The U.S. saw its peak of mu variant cases in mid-July.

Can kids get "long COVID" after coronavirus infections?

Yes, but studies indicate they're less likely than adults to be affected by symptoms that persist, recur or begin a month or more after infection.

A recently published U.K. study found about 4% of young children and teens had symptoms more than a month after getting infected. Fatigue, headaches and loss of smell were among the most common complaints and most were gone by two months. Coughing, chest pain and brain fog are among other long-term symptoms sometimes found in kids, and can occur even after mild infections or no initial symptoms.

Some studies have found higher rates of persisting symptoms than in the U.K. study.

Experts aren't sure what causes the long-term symptoms. In some cases, it could reflect organ damage caused by the initial infection. Or it could be a result of the virus and inflammation lingering in the body.

Kids can develop other rare problems after a coronavirus infection, including heart inflammation or a condition known as multisystem inflammatory syndrome. Because of the potential for long-term consequences, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends follow-up doctor visits after children recover from an initial coronavirus infection.

What about adults and long COVID?

About 30% of adult COVID-19 patients develop long-term symptoms, according to some estimates.

A new study of Long Beach residents found that one in three people who survived COVID-19 suffered from long COVID. There were higher rates among people 40 or older, women, people with preexisting health conditions and Black residents. Fatigue was reported by 17%; difficulty breathing and loss of taste or smell were reported by 13%; and muscle or joint pain was reported by 11%.

What does the CDC say about masks?

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that even fully vaccinated people wear masks in areas with high or substantial levels of viral transmission.

Unvaccinated people are urged to wear masks in indoor public settings, social engagements and crowded outdoor settings.

Where do I need to wear a mask?

Minnesota required mask wearing for its workers in state government buildings, a day after St. Paul, Minneapolis, Hennepin County and Ramsey County required masks for workers and visitors in their buildings.

Minneapolis and St. Paul mayors encouraged people in the Twin Cities, regardless of their vaccination status, to wear them indoors in response to a variant-fueled wave of COVID-19.

Anybody 2 years old and over in Brooklyn Center must now wear a mask in city facilities and city schools. The suburb also enacted a health emergency, allowing it to enact pandemic emergency plans if needed, which will remain in effect until the City Council takes action to end it.

Target, Cub Foods and other retailers require masks for employees and encourage them for customers in areas with high coronavirus transmission levels.

Some businesses such as Juut Salon Spa, as well as employers such as Wells Fargo and the Star Tribune, are requiring visitors and workers to wear masks again. U.S. Bancorp requires masks for unvaccinated employees and "strongly" encourage them for the vaccinated.

Amazon requires all of its 900,000 U.S. warehouse workers to wear masks indoors, regardless of their vaccination status.

The Minnesota Children's Museum requires masks for all visitors age 5 and up. Others requiring masks include the Minnesota Lynx, Guthrie Theater, Minnesota Orchestra, Walker Art Center, History Theatre, Park Square Theatre, Shubert Club, Renegade Theater and the Arts Partnership — made up of the Minnesota Opera, the St. Paul Chamber Orchestra, the Ordway and Schubert Club. Hennepin Theatre Trust — which operates the Orpheum, State and Pantages theaters in downtown Minneapolis — will require guests to wear masks inside all the venues except when eating or drinking, as will the Dakota.

Are the vaccines approved by the FDA?

The U.S. gave full approval to Pfizer's vaccine on Aug. 23. The formula, jointly developed with Germany's BioNTech, will be marketed under the brand name Comirnaty.

Moderna has also applied to the FDA for full approval of its vaccine. Johnson & Johnson, maker of the third option in the U.S., said it hopes to do so later this year.

Both Pfizer and Moderna have vaccine studies underway in youngsters, and they are using lower doses than those available for people 12 and older.

Are the vaccines safe?

A review of 6.2 million vaccine recipients in Minnesota and seven other U.S. regions found no significantly elevated rates of conditions such as stroke or heart attack immediately following COVID-19 vaccination. Bloomington-based HealthPartners participated in the study, which looked for elevated rates of 23 potential side effects in the first three weeks after people received Pfizer or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines.

What about booster shots?

Dealing the White House a stinging setback, a government advisory panel overwhelmingly rejected a plan Friday to give Pfizer COVID-19 booster shots across the board, and instead endorsed the extra vaccine dose only for those who are 65 or older or run a high risk of severe disease, as well as health workers and others who run a high risk of being exposed to the virus on the job. The nonbinding recommendation — from an influential committee of outside experts who advise the Food and Drug Administration — is not the last word.

The FDA signed off Wednesday on the targeted use of extra shots. Advisers to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention opened a two-day meeting Wednesday to make their own, more specific recommendations about who should get the extra shots and when. And in their first day of discussions, some experts were so perplexed by the questions surrounding the rationale for boosters that they suggested putting off a decision for a month in hopes of more evidence.

A Pfizer study of 44,000 people showed effectiveness against symptomatic COVID-19 was 96% two months after the second dose, but had dropped to 84% by around six months.

The Biden administration's initial plan was to offer Pfizer or Moderna boosters starting Sept. 20. But Moderna boosters probably wouldn't be ready by then. Officials said people who received the single-dose Johnson & Johnson vaccine will also probably need extra shots, but are waiting for more data.

The Minnesota Department of Health urged unvaccinated people to seek their COVID-19 vaccine shots as soon as possible, and vaccinated people to wait their turn.

Who qualifies for an extra shot?

Federal officials approved a third dose for those undergoing cancer treatment, who've received organ transplants or had other conditions that depress the body's immune system. These doses are not considered to be boosters.

Can employers mandate the vaccine?

FDA approval for Pfizer's COVID-19 vaccine sets the stage for employers across Minnesota to push harder for workers to get immunized.

Even before the regulatory action, immunization mandates were possible, attorneys say, so long as companies, universities and local governments provided exemptions to workers with religious or medical objections.

Are employers mandating the vaccine?

Some workplace policies are making it more of a hassle for workers to resist the vaccine. Others culminate in unvaccinated employees losing their jobs.

St. Paul Public Schools and Minneapolis Public Schools will require employees to be vaccinated or tested weekly beginning Oct. 15. Instead of showing proof upfront, St. Paul staff members will fill out a form and then be subject to potential audits later.

Intermediate School District 287, a cooperative serving about 1,000 high-needs kids in Hennepin County, said it will require staff members to participate in weekly COVID-19 testing or show proof of vaccination.

Minneapolis Mayor Jacob Frey signed anemergency regulationrequiring city employees to get vaccinated or get tested regularly.

The Star Tribune will require employees who report to work onsite or work with the public to be vaccinated, with an accommodation request process for medical or religious reasons.

Minnesota government employees returning to the office must prove they've been vaccinated or comply with at least weekly testing. The mandate applies to roughly 50,000 people who work under the umbrella of state government and on Minnesota State campuses.

Changes are prominent in health care. Mayo Clinic said workers throughout the Rochester-based health system must get vaccinated or go through an hourlong education session. Essentia Health will require all employees to be fully vaccinated by November. With few exceptions for medical and religious reasons, the mandate applies to all 13,000 of the Duluth-based health system's employees in Minnesota, Wisconsin and North Dakota. Sanford Health is requiring all workers to get shots by Nov. 1.The Fairview and Allina health systems announced vaccine requirements with some exceptions for their workers.

President Joe Biden said his administration will require that nursing home staff be vaccinated as a condition for those facilities to continue receiving federal Medicare and Medicaid funding.

Google, Microsoft, Facebook and Walt Disney Co. are requiring U.S. employees who work on site to be fully vaccinated.

The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis said it would require its 1,100 employees to get vaccinated by the end of August. Minneapolis law firm Robins Kaplan also has a vaccine mandate.

The federal Health and Human Services Department is requiring employees who provide care or services for patients to get their shots. The order from Secretary Xavier Becerra will affect more than 25,000 clinicians, researchers, contractors, trainees and volunteers with the National Institutes of Health, the Indian Health Service and the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps. The VA ordered its health care workers to get vaccinated.

Tyson Foods said it will require all of its approximately 120,000 U.S. employees to get the shot. Microsoft will demand that its roughly 100,000 U.S. employees — as well as visitors and others — show proof of vaccination starting in September.

Walmart is requiring that all workers at its headquarters as well as its managers who travel within the U.S. be vaccinated against COVID-19 by Oct. 4.

Delta Air Lines employees on Delta's health plan who haven't been fully vaccinated will incur a $200 monthly surcharge, deducted from paychecks beginning in November. Unvaccinated employees will immediately be required to mask up at indoor Delta facilities. And beginning Sept. 30, COVID-19 pay protection will only apply to fully vaccinated employees who suffer a breakthrough infection. The new policies don't apply to regional airline partners, including Minneapolis-based Endeavor Air, that operate under the Delta Connection name.

United, Hawaiian and Frontier airlines said all employees must soon be vaccinated, with certain exemptions available. Twin Cities-based Sun Country doesn't require its employees to be vaccinated, "but we are encouraging it," a spokeswoman said.

Medtronic, which has its operational headquarters in Fridley, said workers would need to be vaccinated or have a recent negative test result to enter U.S. offices starting Sept. 30.

CNN fired three employees who violated company policy by coming to work unvaccinated.

Members of the U.S. military will be required to get the COVID-19 vaccine beginning in September, as will employees of the Pentagon.

Ramsey and Hennepin counties will require their combined 13,000 employees to provide proof of vaccination or submit to regular testing, with 30 days' notice and by Oct. 1, respectively.

What about entertainment venues?

Audience members will have to show proof of full COVID-19 vaccination or negative test results to get into a show at First Avenue or any of its sister venues, the Dakota, the Cedar Cultural Center, the Ordway, the Guthrie Theater, Minnesota Orchestra, Walker Art Center, History Theatre, Park Square Theatre, Shubert Club and Hennepin Theatre Trust's Orpheum, State and Pantages in downtown Minneapolis. Renegade Theater Company will require proof of full vaccination or a recent negative test to attend its performances at Zeitgeist Teatro Zuccone in Duluth

Promoter Live Nation is also enforcing a vaccine/test requirement at all its indoor venues, including the Fillmore and Varsity Theater in Minneapolis, as is the Uptown VFW aka the James Ballentine VFW Post 246.

The Armory in Minneapolis does not have a standard policy. Attendees are being told to checkarmorymn.comto find out whether each show has rules in place.

Hark! Cafe in downtown Minneapolis and W.A. Frost in St. Paul are asking patrons to show proof of vaccination or a negative COVID test for anyone over 12 years old wishing to dine indoors.

What if I'm going to Canada?

The Canadian government will soon require all air travelers and passengers on interprovincial trains and cruise ships to be vaccinated. The government is requiring vaccinations for all federal public servants and working on a vaccine passport.

Do masks work?

Ordinary surgical and paper masks work when worn properly, said Chris Hogan, a University of Minnesota researcher who has studied mask effectiveness and is editor of the Journal of Aerosol Science.

What are Minnesota K-12 schools doing?

The CDC recommended that people wear masks in K-12 schools and in counties with high or substantial levels of viral transmission.

State health and education officials are recommending — but not requiring — that Minnesota school districts mandate indoor mask wearing for all students and teachers this fall, whether or not they have received a COVID-19 vaccine.

Because Gov. Tim Walz no longer retains the emergency powers that allowed the state to mandate mask wearing earlier in the pandemic, decisions about masking, social distancing and other precautionary measures will be left to local school districts. Only two statewide requirements remain: Schools must report all confirmed COVID-19 cases to the state, and students and staff must wear masks while on school buses, in line with federal guidelines for public transportation.

Free COVID-19testing kitswill be offered to schools as will grant money to help with supplies and staffing support, state officials said.

Anoka-Hennepin, the state's largest district, has mandated masksfor staff and students in kindergarten through sixth grade when county health department data reaches a particular threshold: at least 15 cases per 10,000 residents. Masks will be recommended, but not required, for students in grades 7 to 12 and staff and visitors working with those students.

A growing number of Minnesota districts, including St. Paul, Minneapolis, Brooklyn Center, Osseo, Roseville, Duluth, St. Cloud and Edina, are requiring masks for everyone inside all school buildings. Others are requiring masks only for grade levels with students too young to qualify for a COVID-19 vaccine. That includes Mankato, Minnetonka and South Washington County schools.

Albert Lea Area Schools required masks for grades 6-12 after 36 cases of COVID-19 and 290 students in quarantine just five days after classes started on Aug. 19.

St. Paul Public Schools said a new online school initially designed for high schoolers will now include students from kindergarten through grade 12.

The Elk River district said in mid-July that masks would not be required, and did not make any specific recommendations. Wayzata's current back-to-school plan says masks are optional, but district officials said they are reviewing the new recommendations and will update families of any changes.

Other districts have specific plans for students too young to be vaccinated. In Rochester, school board members voted to require people under age 12 to wear masks. Mask wearing is recommended for older students and adults there, regardless of their vaccine status.

What are Minnesota colleges and universities doing about masks and vaccinations?

The University of Minnesota, University of St. Thomas, Hamline University, St. Catherine University, Macalester College, Augsburg University, Carleton College, St. Olaf College, the College of St. Benedict, St. John's University, Gustavus Adolphus College and the Mitchell Hamline School of Law will require vaccinations for students, joining hundreds of schools nationwide.

The University of Minnesota said all students, employees and visitors at its five campuses are required to wear masks indoors. Minnesota State Chancellor Devinder Malhotra told presidents of the system's 37 colleges and universities they should reinstate indoor mask mandates if they are located in counties with high virus transmission. The system will require certain students — such as those living in dorms or on sports teams — to be vaccinated or tested regularly.

What else are employers doing?

Target told headquarters employees they will not be required to come into the office for the remainder of the year. The Minneapolis-based company is still planning a gradual transition back to the office starting Sept. 20. But only common areas such as cafeterias and conference rooms will be open.

U.S. Bancorp will wait until later this fall to have corporate employees return to the office, citing a resurgence in coronavirus for delaying its initial plan toend most remote work after Labor Day. The company is the fifth-largest employer in downtown Minneapolis.

Wells Fargo said it is aiming for a phased return starting Oct. 4, a month later thanits previous plan. It is the third-largest employer in downtown Minneapolis.Dorsey & Whitney law firm is delaying its plans to return this fall to its U.S. offices, including Minneapolis. Travelers hopes to have its 2,100 employees in St. Paul back by mid-October.

Starkey Hearing Technologies told all workers to wear masks in common areas and unvaccinated employees to also wear masks at their desks.

Greater Twin Cities United Way planned to reopen its downtown Minneapolis office on Sept. 13. That date will likely be pushed to November or even into 2022.

Amazon has pushed back its return-to-office date for tech and corporate workers until January.

Who can make you get a COVID vaccine?

A growing number of employers, universities and businesses are now issuing some form of a vaccine requirement. (Here's a look at who could ask you to get the vaccine.)

Under many of these orders, those who remain unvaccinated, including people who can't get a vaccine because of a disability or conflicting religious beliefs, will instead have to follow strict guidelines like regular COVID testing, masking and social distancing.

"I think probably what these companies are thinking — for those individuals — requiring them to be masked, or constantly tested, is a reasonable accommodation," Joel Friedman, a law professor at Tulane University, said. "And that's probably correct."

Do people who've had COVID-19 still need to get vaccinated?

Even people who have recovered from COVID-19 are urged to get vaccinated. A new study shows survivors who ignored that advice were more than twice as likely to get reinfected.

The CDC study adds to growing laboratory evidence that people who had one bout of COVID-19 get a dramatic boost in virus-fighting immune cells — and a bonus of broader protection against new mutants — when they're vaccinated.

Should pregnant women get the vaccine?

The CDC urged all pregnant women to get the COVID-19 vaccine as hospitals in hot spots around the U.S. see disturbing numbers of unvaccinated mothers-to-be seriously ill with the virus. Expectant women run a higher risk of severe illness and pregnancy complications from the coronavirus, including perhaps miscarriages and stillbirths.

A research study based on data from Bloomington-based HealthPartners and medical centers across the country finds that pregnant women who received COVID-19 vaccines did not experience an increased risk of miscarriage.

If you're thinking of getting pregnant, there's no evidence that any vaccines, including COVID-19 vaccines, influence your chances of getting pregnant despite a myth suggesting otherwise.

Do pregnant women who get vaccinated pass the protection to their babies?

Pregnant women who get mRNA vaccines pass high levels of antibodies to their babies, according to a study published in American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology - Maternal Fetal Medicine on Sept. 22.

The study — one of the first to measure antibody levels in umbilical cord blood to distinguish whether immunity is from infection or vaccines — found that 36 newborns all had antibodies to protect against COVID-19 after their mothers were vaccinated with shots from Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna.

Will people need vaccine passports to do fun things?

In parts of the U.S., you might have to carry your COVID-19 vaccine card or a digital copy to get into restaurants, bars, nightclubs and outdoor music festivals. Enough venues are starting to ask for digital passes to worry some privacy advocates, who fear the trend could habituate consumers to constant tracking.

Is the delta variant more contagious?

Scientists who studied a big COVID-19 outbreak in Massachusetts concluded that vaccinated people who got so-called breakthrough infections carried about the same amount of the coronavirus as those who did not get the shots.

The research was key in the decision by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to recommend that vaccinated people return to wearing masks indoors in parts of the U.S. where the delta variant is fueling infection surges.

Previously, vaccinated people who got infected were thought to have low levels of virus and to be unlikely to pass it to others. But the new data shows that is not the case with the delta variant.

The delta variant, first detected in India, causes infections that are more contagious than the common cold, flu, smallpox and the Ebola virus, and it is as infectious as chickenpox, according to the documents, which mentioned the Provincetown cases.

People with breakthrough infections make up an increasing portion of hospitalizations and in-hospital deaths among COVID-19 patients, coinciding with the spread of the delta variant, according to the documents.

Delta has kept some of the most successful mutations found in earlier variants, but also contains new genetic changes that enable it to spread twice as fast. It has an incubation period of four days, rather than six, making people contagious sooner.

The delta variant is sending more children to the hospital. Are they sicker, too?

Most children with COVID-19 have mild symptoms, and there is not yet enough evidence to conclude that delta causes more severe disease in children than other variants do, scientists said.

What is clear is that a confluence of factors — including delta's contagiousness and the fact that people under 12 are not yet eligible to be vaccinated — is sending more children to the hospital, especially in areas of the country where the virus is surging.

Is the delta variant making young adults sicker?

Physicians working in COVID-19 hot spots across the nation say the patients in their hospitals are not like the patients they saw last year. Almost always unvaccinated, the new arrivals tend to be younger, many in their 20s or 30s. And they seem sicker than younger patients were last year, deteriorating more rapidly.

Doctors have coined a new phrase to describe them: "younger, sicker, quicker." Many physicians treating them suspect that the delta variant of the coronavirus, which now accounts for more than 80% of new infections nationwide, is playing a role.

There is no definitive data showing that the new variant is somehow worse for young adults. Some experts believe the shift in patient demographics is strictly a result of lower vaccination rates in this group.

"Our sense is that younger, healthier people are more susceptible to the delta variant than those that were circulating earlier," said Dr. Cam Patterson, chancellor of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences.

What does the delta variant mean for herd immunity?

Herd immunity is based on the idea that when a certain percentage of the population has been vaccinated against the virus or gains immunity by a previous infection, it helps protect the broader population and reduce transmission.

The spread of the delta coronavirus variant has pushed the threshold for herd immunity to well over 80% and potentially approaching 90%, according to an Infectious Diseases Society of America briefing.

Dr. Gregory Poland with Mayo Clinic said recently he thinks that the high transmissibility of the delta variant could mean that even 95% coverage may not be enough.

Correction: Previous versions of this story incorrectly described the Ramsey County Deputies’ Federation’s stance on a proposed COVID-19 vaccine mandate for county employees. Previous versions of this story incorrectly stated the Capella Building requires masks.