Records document Stillwater prison in 1914

  • Article by: KEVIN GILES , Star Tribune
  • Updated: May 10, 2014 - 2:00 PM

Retirees spent months sifting through boxes to rescue and preserve 100 years of documented history.


The A West cell house at Stillwater prison looked empty recently but the appearance was deceptive. Men, mostly lifers, were locked in their cells to free officers to participate in the 100th anniversary commemoration. Each of the four galleys has 64 cells, just as they were built in 1914.

Photo: Photos by Callie Sacarelos •,

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Linda Harder and Sue Nau had worked hard for this moment.

For an entire summer and then some, the two retirees from Stillwater prison had labored over thousands of boxes in a damp basement below the prison, rescuing historic documents from the ravages of time.

Now, as part of a program commemorating the prison’s 100th anniversary, the two were showing off their hard work to hundreds of visitors in the huge, remodeled house where past wardens once lived.

And they couldn’t have been more pleased.

“We’re just glad to see it come to this day and see everybody enjoy it,” Harder said.

Harder and Nau, “best friends,” both worked more than 30 years at Stillwater prison. They began in the clerical department — Harder in parole and Nau in records — before being promoted through a series of jobs, finishing a few years ago as program directors in charge of cell houses.

Two years ago they volunteered to sort musty records, many of them covered with pigeon and mouse droppings, in a quest to save Stillwater prison’s history. What they found told a story, receipt by receipt, of the early years of Minnesota’s oldest existing prison.

“It was like reading a novel,” Nau said of their exploration into thousands of business receipts, disciplinary reports and time sheets recovered from beneath the prison. “We spent an entire summer in a cellar, sorting.”

The purpose of the May 2 commemoration wasn’t to “revel” in the circumstances of fellow citizens incarcerated at the prison, said Commissioner Tom Roy of the Minnesota Department of Corrections, but to honor officers and other workers who kept a small city running behind bars and high walls.

“So many times when people drive by this place they see this prison as an iconic structure,” he told about 300 people gathered outside the warden’s house across from the prison in Bayport. “It really is a place where so many disciplines go to work every day.”

‘Iconic structure’

The prison today, second only to St. Cloud prison in age, houses 1,600 men whose crimes require close custody. About a third of them have committed murder; most of the rest were convicted of violent felonies such as rape, kidnapping and aggravated robbery.

Structurally, the building is much like it was when it opened in 1914, with long units full of men living in cells fronted with bars nicked and pitted from a century of use.

It still lacks air conditioning — temperatures on hot summer days reach 100 degrees in the upper galleys where prisoners double-bunk because of overcrowding. Much of the architecture remains the same with decorative skylights, tall windows and a long wide hallway that connect cellblocks with the chapel, gym, dining hall and school.

“It’s amazing, isn’t it, that the place has functioned for 100 years nonstop?” Roy said.

Buying local

Construction of the $1.3 million 1914 prison to replace the state’s first prison in downtown Stillwater — more than a century ago — was an ambitious effort that, as Harder and Nau found, required purchases of materials from hundreds of businesses.

Lumber came from Stillwater’s many sawmills, tons of brick and metal were hauled to the site to make high walls and secure cell houses. Hardware stores cashed in, too, as did grocery markets that fed both inmates and workers.

  • related content

  • Sue Nau, left, and Linda Harder collected purchase receipts, time sheets and other documents to display in the old warden’s house at Stillwater prison. They both retired as program directors from the prison.

  • Displays at Stillwater prison showed books modified to hide weapons and other contraband.

  • Prisoner offenses, 1914

    The new Stillwater prison in 1914 had a “silent system” that required convicts to reflect on their crimes and repent. The deputy warden penned infractions in a logbook. Among them:

    • “Humming in his cell”

    • “Laughing and fooling in line”

    • “Gazing at visitors”

    • “Leaving cell with coat unbuttoned”

    • “Chewing black pepper while visiting”

    • “Hissing at waiter”

    • “Trying to shirk band practice”

    • “Rapping on cell door with cup”

    • “Looking back on galley”

    • “Laying broken head on plate” (Did the deputy warden mean bread?)

    Source: Disciplinary records from 1914.

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