Survivors of the worst-case E. coli infections have a high enough risk for kidney-caused problems that the University of Utah recommends annual exams. The warning is for people who suffered a life-threatening E. coli complication known as hemolytic uremic syndrome, or HUS.

Dr. Andrew Pavia says each year these people need:

• A blood pressure check. That's not routine for kids and young adults, but subtle kidney scarring from the HUS could cause high blood pressure early in life.

• A urine exam to check for protein, a sign of kidney damage.

• A blood test to measure kidney function.