Who are the scalpers?

High-tech brokers: Users of “bot” ticket-buying software and other computer gadgetry to circumvent ticketers’ security systems to buy bundles of the best seats.

Low-tech brokers: Guys selling on the corner and local companies such as Ticket King, who pay people to stand in line or go online, or have inside contacts.

Concert promoters and venues: Companies such as Live Nation and AEG Live often hold onto 10 to 30 percent of the best tickets, offering high-priced “platinum” seats — and sometimes selling tickets to brokers, according to a former StubHub exec.

Insiders and VIPs: If Mike Tice infamously scalped Super Bowl tickets in 2005 as a well-paid Vikings coach, you can imagine how often it happens with lower-profile employees involved in concerts and sports events.

Pre-sale buyers: Offers through American Express and artists’ fan clubs can claim 15 to 40 percent of the good seats.

Average-Joe fans: Someone buying two tickets to Adele or Metallica figures he might as well buy four knowing the extras can be sold at a profit on StubHub.