One of the projects, a British effort, ran into technical trouble and had to be called off for this season. An expedition from Russia will be returning samples to be analyzed later.
The U.S. effort, financed by three federal agencies and a private foundation, is about to start drilling into a lake half a mile below a glacier called the Whillans Ice Stream and will analyze samples on the spot in a field laboratory. An announcement of what it finds could come in the next few weeks.
John C. Priscu of Montana State University, a leader of the project, said there was no guarantee. "We don't know; there are going to be surprises," he said in a conference call in December with the two other members of the project's executive committee, Ross D. Powell of Northern Illinois University, and Slawek Tulaczyk of the University of California, Santa Cruz. Priscu and Tulaczyk were getting ready to fly to Antarctica; Powell was already at McMurdo Station, the U.S. scientific base there.
Priscu is hopeful, he said, given that "10 years of circumstantial evidence" suggest that "there should be a viable microbial community that's living in the dark and the cold." The project is called WISSARD, for Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling.
Both the Russian and British projects aimed to reach waters under 2 or more miles of ice. Lake Whillans lies under a half-mile of ice. For all three, there is no sun to power living cells, only minerals and heat from the earth's interior. While life is known to survive in the deep ocean without photosynthesis, nothing like these cold, freshwater depths have ever been explored. Robin Bell, a senior research scientist at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, who studies the behavior of ice sheets with radar and other techniques, said the subglacial Antarctic lakes hold "whole ecosystems that have never really been looked at."
Chris McKay, an astrobiologist at NASA Ames Research Center, said exploring extreme environments offered practical lessons for efforts on other planets, "learning how to make measurements in places where there's not much life." And, he said, of the possible candidates for past or present microbial life in the solar system, "none of them have environments near the surface that are habitable."
The Lake Whillans research is also aimed at understanding the flow of water beneath glaciers into the Southern Ocean and the rate of melting of Antarctic ice, which could inform climate studies.
The WISSARD project involves the use of a remote torpedo-shaped submersible, about 21/2 feet long. It will operate on a tether about 1 mile long and will be used to map the three-dimensional space of the underground lake, including its inlets and outlets. Tulaczyk said that understanding the shape of the lake, and how the water moves in and out, is important for knowing how and why the glaciers above these deep lakes move, "why parts of Antarctica are gaining, and others losing" ice cover.
Glaciologists have a good understanding of how the ice sheets on the surface of Antarctica move, he said, but the nearly 400 known buried lakes affect the movement of ice above them. They can serve as a kind of lubricant between the mountains and valleys of the Antarctic continent's land mass, and the vast amounts of ice under which it is buried.
The WISSARD team will also be taking samples from the sediments at the bottom of the lake, to look for living microbes or chemical evidence of past activity. Subglacial microbes may, for instance, be changing the mineral composition of the water, freeing iron that then flows into the ocean around Antarctica.
The project involved not only developing and testing a hot-water drill with a filtering system to prevent contamination of the buried lake, but also transporting the drill -- along with the submersible and a laboratory capable of on-site analysis of water and sediment samples -- over 500 miles of ice, from McMurdo Station to the Lake Whillans site. Thirteen tractors hauled the equipment from the McMurdo research station over the course of two weeks, arriving at the site Jan. 12.
Speaking from McMurdo, Priscu said there will be about 50 people at the camp by Monday, when he hopes drilling will begin.