There have been numerous shortages during the quarantine, but envy isn’t one of them,

When the coronavirus hit France, novelist Leila Slimani and her family left Paris for their country home. Once there, she began writing a quarantine diary for the newspaper Le Monde. The response, especially from people stuck in small Parisian apartments, was so scathing that she abandoned the series.

She hasn’t been alone in facing such anger. When billionaire David Geffen posted photos of his megayacht on Instagram while he quarantined in the Grenadines, the backlash led him to turn his account private.

Envy, of course, is the joy-devouring emotion of craving what others have. Even before the pandemic, social media was linked to rising levels of the emotion.

“Social media magnifies and creates instant, destructive envy,” said Andrew Oswald, a professor of economics and behavioral science at the University of Warwick in England and co-author of a study on whether envy is societally harmful. (Short answer: Yes.) “There’s a globalization of envy, and in the longer run, we have to regulate it.”

Growing wealth disparity, along with ubiquitous social media, appears to have made us all less satisfied (and snarkier). The pandemic has fueled the fire. Essential workers envy those working at home. People who were laid off envy those who weren’t. Those home-schooling young children envy those who aren’t. We all envy the rich.

Those studying the topic find the reaction understandable.

“When people are miserable, their resilience to other bad things becomes reduced,” Oswald said. “It’s easier to shrug off others’ good fortune when your life is OK. It’s been a terrible time for many people, and the last thing they want to see is a millionaire’s house with a giant lawn.”

The response is real

Envy, studies show, presents as a measurable brain response and is quantifiable via self-report scales.

Jens Lange, a psychologist at the University of Hamburg in Germany, agreed that the pandemic has created conditions that are ripe for envy.

“At the heart of envy is social comparison of your situation with someone else’s,” Lange said. “It’s a basic process across all cultures.”

He added: “The pandemic is increasing the divide between the advantaged and disadvantaged, so there’s more opportunity to compare yourself to others in unflattering ways. You may also realize certain things are important that you never thought about. Say you’re alone in lockdown. Before, you were never socially isolated. Now your envy increases toward people locked down in others’ company.”

That’s been true for Bethany Grace Howe, 52, CEO of the TransHealth Data Collective in Eugene, Ore. Howe, who describes herself as a “raging extrovert,” is quarantined solo, except when her daughter visits.

“I’m envious of people who have more than cats to talk to,” Howe said. “I see my friend and her family on Facebook doing puzzles. And I think, it would be nice to be doing puzzles with a family. People have told me, ‘Turn it off,’ and I’m like, ‘Yeah, but that’s the only social connection I have.’ ”

Others envy friends who’ve had experiences they’ll miss. Maya London-Southern, 23, a senior at Middlebury College in Vermont, was devastated when her campus shut down this past spring.

“I know what I lost in the pandemic is not that bad,” she said. “But in school, every year you see the senior class have their moment. Friends would say, ‘Oh, that sucks that you missed senior spring, you definitely have it worse than me.’ It was pouring salt on the wound and made it hard to interact.”

An envy Rx

One of the best ways to deal with envy, during the pandemic or any other time, is not to judge yourself.

“It’s what we do with envious feelings that matters,” Oswald said.

Some research suggests that envy, managed productively, is a motivator, driving us to achieve. If you’re upset a friend has a job after you were laid off, it might push you to job-hunt that much more.

But getting a job in the current economy is no easy task. If you can’t alter your situation in big ways, go for smaller improvements, experts recommend. Organize a socially distanced gathering, watch a funny movie, find volunteer work or adopt a pet.

You also can use social media proactively, to connect rather than virtually covet. Studies have shown that scrolling passively through platforms like Facebook — rather than directly connecting with friends there — can make you feel bad about yourself. For now, block friends who routinely create envy-inspiring posts.

Finally, it’s easy to assume that someone you envy is happy and carefree, while discounting what’s good in your life, said Christine Harris, a psychology professor at the University of California, San Diego. We frequently make an assessment without knowing another person’s struggles.

“We equate money with happiness, and it’s not true. Focus on what you have. A family? People who love you? A faith? Good weather? We so often take things for granted. There are positives for almost everyone but you have to find them,” she said. “People flying around in private jets — they’re in the tabloids all the time. I read their expressions, how many happy marriages do you see?”

Some groups also might be better than others at resisting envy. A recent Brookings Institution study showed that African American and Hispanic people, especially those with low incomes, remained more optimistic than their white counterparts, despite facing physical and economic challenges from the pandemic.

“We think strong cultural and community ties and a tradition of overcoming adversity are one reason these communities are resilient,” said Carol Graham, a senior fellow at Brookings. “If you’re focusing on how much better other people are doing than you, it’s pretty hard to overcome adversity.”

This is not to say that some inequities of the pandemic — like unequal access to medical care — shouldn’t upset us all. But for now, it helps to put the rest in perspective.