Here's an agency-by-agency look at how President Obama would spend Americans' money in the 2016 budget year beginning Oct. 1:

AGRICULTURE

Up or down? Up 3 percent

What’s new? A new food safety agency. Here's an agency-by-agency look at how President Obama would spend Americans' money in the 2016 budget year beginning Oct. 1:

Highlights: The budget proposes consolidating the Agriculture Department’s Food Safety and Inspection Service with the Food and Drug Administration’s food safety oversight in a new agency under the Health and Human Services Department. The administration is proposing an annual cut of $1.6 billion for farmers’ crop insurance, which subsidizes both the companies that sell crop insurance and farmer premiums. The bulk of the USDA budget is nutrition programs. Food stamps alone are estimated to cost $83.7 billion for the 2016 budget year.

Total spending: $156 billion, including spending on farm subsidies and nutrition programs already required by law.

Spending that needs Congress’ annual approval: $24.4 billion

DEFENSE

Up or down? Up 4.4 percent

What’s new? The highest base budget in history, and the lowest spending on war costs since 2002.

Highlights: The budget calls for investment in weapons systems, aircraft and ships, along with increased spending on cybersecurity and other advanced technologies, such as high-energy lasers. The plans include $10.6 billion for 57 Joint Strike Fighters, $11.6 billion for nine new ships; $1.4 billion for submarine development. The administration wants a $53.9 billion budget for the intelligence agencies. The budget includes a 1.3 percent raise for service members and civilians.

Total spending: $585 billion. The request calls for a base budget of $534 billion, up 7.7 percent over this year.

Spending that needs Congress’ annual approval: $585 billion

EDUCATION

Up or down? Down 24.3 percent

What’s new? A proposal for free community college.

Highlights: Obama wants to make two years of community college free and to do so, he would give grants to states. The budget seeks $1.4 billion for the program, which would cost $60 billion over 10 years. Obama would use a tobacco tax increase to make preschool available to all low-and moderate-income 4-year-olds at a cost of $1.3 billion next year, or $75 billion over 10 years. Obama also seeks $1.5 billion for the Health and Human Services Department to make Head Start available for a full day and all year.

Total spending: $73.8 billion, down because mandatory spending fell from $30.3 billion to $3 billion.

Spending that needs Congress’ annual approval: $70.8 billion, an increase of more than 5 percent

ENERGY

Up or down? Up 13.8 percent

What’s new? Calls for reforming nuclear waste disposal by establishing an interim disposal site.

Highlights: Obama proposes a new way to deal with nuclear waste storage at power plants by starting a decadelong, $5.7 billion effort. The plan would establish an interim storage site for the waste now distributed at 72 nuclear power plants. He wants across-the-board increases in the research and development of renewable energy sources, including solar, wind and geothermal energy, and advanced vehicle technologies such as electric cars and advanced batteries. And the budget adds $38 million for carbon capture and storage.

Total spending: $29.2 billion.

Spending that needs Congress’ annual approval: $29.9 billion

EPA

Up or down? Up 55.6 percent

What’s new? A $4 billion fund for use by states that cut the pollution blamed for global warming from power plants faster than required.

Highlights: After cutting the EPA’s budget for years, Obama is proposing the largest increase of his presidency. His proposal includes $239 million to address climate change, including rules due this summer to cut heat-trapping pollution from power plants. It includes $50 million to help states, tribes and private companies upgrade drinking water and sewer systems and $2.3 billion in low-interest loans and grants to communities to make improvements in drinking water and sewage treatment.

Total spending: $12.5 billion.

Spending that needs Congress’ annual approval: $8.6 billion, not including that new $4 billion state fund

HEALTH

Up or down? Up 4.3 percent

What’s new? Medicare could negotiate prices for cutting-edge drugs.

Highlights: The Health and Human Services budget asks Congress to allow Medicare to negotiate what it pays for high-cost prescription drugs. Tobacco taxes would nearly double to extend health insurance for low-income children, and taxes on other tobacco products also would go up. That would pay for the Children’s Health Insurance Program through 2019. Starting in 2019, Medicare premiums for high-income beneficiaries would increase. There’s full funding for Obama’s health care law.

Total spending: $1.1 trillion, including $1 trillion on benefit programs including Medicare and Medicaid.

Spending that needs Congress’ annual approval: $80 billion

HOMELAND

Up or down? Up 9.1 percent

What’s new? An extra $8.2 million to improve White House security.

Highlights: The Homeland Security request for security improvements at the White House complex comes after a series of breaches. Obama also seeks up to $162 million more next year to handle increases in the number of unaccompanied children caught crossing the border from Mexico. Customs and Border Protection would get $134.5 million more. Immigration and Customs Enforcement would get a $27.6 million increase. The plan includes $373 million to buy and maintain technology and tactical infrastructure on the Southwest border.

Total spending: $48 billion.

Spending that needs Congress’ annual approval: $47.9 billion

HOUSING

Up or down? Up 10.3 percent

What’s new? An unusually large jump in spending would restore about 67,000 vouchers used by the poor to pay for housing.

Highlights: The Housing and Urban Development budget seeks $500 million to help communities hit by hurricanes, flooding or other natural disasters to become more resilient to future disasters. It would more than double spending to $248 million for grants communities can use to improve housing stock, transportation and other services for neighborhoods with high poverty rates. The proposal includes $2.5 billion for programs dedicated to helping the homeless.

Total spending: $48.35 billion, including $7.3 billion in spending required by law.

Spending that needs Congress’ annual approval: $41 billion

INTERIOR

Up or down? Up 21.9 percent

What’s new? $1 billion to mark the centennial of the National Park Service.

Highlights: The budget includes $859 million in new spending to mark the anniversary by upgrading services and facilities at national parks. It proposes new fees to increase revenue from oil and gas production on federal lands and waters. The budget would extend tax credits for wind and solar projects and target investment in areas where declines in coal production have created challenges. The budget also seeks $1 billion to operate and upgrade federally run schools for 48,000 American Indian children on reservations.

Total spending: $15 billion.

Spending that needs Congress’ annual approval: $13.1 billion

JUSTICE

Up or down? Basically level

What’s new? Money to help buy body cameras for local, state and tribal law officers.

Highlights: The budget proposes $30 million to fund the purchase of body cameras for police officers and calls for expanded training and oversight for local law officers. The proposal also includes roughly $15 million for programs and research aimed at countering violent extremism. It would provide roughly $480 million to hire 55 immigration judge teams and to expand legal representation for unaccompanied children. It would invest $146 million to improve re-entry and recidivism programs in the Bureau of Prisons.

Total spending: $31.8 billion.

Spending that needs Congress’ annual approval: $28.7 billion

LABOR

Up or down? Up 59.1 percent

What’s new? Help for some states to launch paid-leave programs.

Highlights: Proposals include a $2 billion initiative to assist as many as five states launch paid-leave programs for workers, $207 million to make saving easier for millions of Americans currently without employer-based retirement plans and $592 million for the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to foster compliance with safety and health regulations, inspect hazardous workplaces and strengthen protection of whistleblowers. Another proposal requests $395 million for the Mine Safety and Health Administration to help protect mine workers.

Total spending: $79.8 billion.

Spending that needs Congress’ annual approval: $13.1 billion

NASA

Up or down? Up 2.9 percent

What’s new? Not much.

Highlights: The exploration budget — which includes plans to grab an asteroid and haul it closer to Earth — gets a slight bump. The plan would give a 54 percent spending jump to money sent to private firms to develop ships to taxi astronauts to the International Space Station and cut by nearly 12 percent spending to build the next government big rocket to carry astronauts. The plan includes extra money for a 2020 unmanned Martian rover and funding for a robotic mission to Jupiter’s moon Europa. Obama’s budget would cut aeronautics research 12 percent and slash educational spending by 25 percent.

Total spending: $18.5 billion.

Spending that needs Congress’ annual approval: $18.5 billion

STATE

Up or down? Up, but accounting rules shifted

What’s new? Embassy security upgrades and more money to counter the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant.

Highlights: The budget asks Congress for $117 million to counter “aggressive acts” by Russia in Ukraine and would give Ukraine $154.1 million in direct economic aid. It would dedicate $3.5 billion to counter ISIL, respond to deteriorating conditions in Syria, and assist with humanitarian needs among refugee populations. The budget seeks $1.5 billion for the Afghan government and another $963 million to fund U.S. operations in the country, including $124 million for security upgrades at the embassy in Kabul.

Total spending: $63.3 billion.

Spending that needs Congress’ annual approval: $53.3 billion, or about 6 percent more than last year

TRANSPORTATION

Up or down? Up 31 percent

What’s new? A plan to tackle an estimated $2 trillion in deferred maintenance for aging infrastructure.

Highlights: The six-year highway and transit plan would get a one-time $238 billion infusion. Some of the money would be offset by taxing the profits of U.S. companies that haven’t been paying taxes on income made overseas. The proposal includes tax incentives to encourage private investment in infrastructure, and an infrastructure investment bank to finance transportation projects. The proposal would triple spending, to $31 billion, for the office that investigates whether cars and trucks should be recalled.

Total spending: $94.5 billion, including more than $80 billion already required.

Spending that needs Congress’ annual approval: $14.3 billion

VETERANS AFFAIRS

Up or down? Up 3.3 percent

What’s new? Billions in new spending to improve veterans’ medical care.

Highlights: The budget includes $60 billion to improve medical care, a 7.4 percent increase. VA health care enrollment is projected to reach 9.4 million in 2016, up from 9.3 million now. The proposal also includes $7 billion to expand mental health services, $85 million to hire new staff to reduce a backlog of disability claims, and $1.4 billion to reduce homelessness among veterans. About $622 million would go for research, including advances in prosthetic limbs to help those wounded in war.

Total spending: $165.4 billion, including $95.1 billion in required spending for disability, pension benefits.

Spending that needs Congress’ annual approval: $70.2 billion

Associated Press