President Donald Trump and his Democratic challenger, Joe Biden, sparred Thursday night in Nashville in their second and final presidential debate, hoping to sway undecided voters in the Nov. 3 election. Here's a look at how their statements on key issues stack up with the facts.

Coronavirus

Trump

"2.2 million people modeled out were expected to die."

The facts

Trump routinely mentions this figure, but it is incredibly misleading. Trump is citing a possible death figure that was a worst-case scenario produced by Imperial College London, which assumed that 81% of the population became infected ­— 268 million people — and that 0.9% of them would die. It did so by also assuming people took no actions against the coronavirus — nobody avoided crowded elevators, wore masks, washed their hands more often, or bought gloves or hand sanitizer — which the study acknowledged was unrealistic: "It is highly likely that there would be significant spontaneous change in population behavior even in the absence of government-mandated interventions." Moreover, even the 1918 flu pandemic is believed to have infected no more than 28% of the population, making the 81% figure suspect, noted Alan Reynolds of the Cato Institute.

Criminal justice

Trump

"You have done nothing other than the crime bill, which put tens of thousands of Black men, mostly, in jail."

The facts

Criminal justice experts and critics say Biden's work on crime legislation helped lay the groundwork for mass incarceration that has devastated America's Black communities. Biden's actions took place at a time when violent crime was surging in many cities. His work culminated in 1994, when as chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee, he helped pass a vast catchall crime bill known as the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act. The law included strong punitive measures desired by law enforcement, created 60 new death penalty offenses, gave states incentives to build prisons, set aside money for 100,000 new police and codified a "three strikes" rule. While some studies show that the bill lowered the crime rate, which had exploded during the 1980s and 1990s, there is evidence that it contributed to the explosion of the prison population.

Trump's finances

Biden

"We learned this president does business in China, has a secret bank account in China."

The facts

This is true. Trump maintains a bank account in China, according to his tax returns, the New York Times reported this week. The Times reported that Trump spent a decade unsuccessfully pursuing projects in China, operating an office there during his first run for president and forging a partnership with a major government-controlled company. The president's foreign accounts do not show up on his public financial disclosures, where he must list personal assets, because they are held under corporate names. The identities of the financial institutions are not clear, the Times reported. It said the Chinese account is controlled by Trump International Hotels Management LLC, which the tax records show paid $188,561 in taxes in China while pursuing licensing deals there from 2013 to 2015.

Biden's finances

Trump

"Joe got $3.5 million from Russia, and it came through Putin, because he was very friendly with the former mayor of Moscow, and it was the [mayor's] wife … your family got $3.5 million."

The facts

This claim is based on a report released last week by Senate Republicans that accused members of Biden's family of cashing in on his vice presidency. The report claims Hunter Biden "had a financial relationship" with Elena Baturina, a wealthy Russian businesswoman and the widow of a former mayor of Moscow. The report bases this claim on a "confidential document" showing that Baturina transferred $3.5 million in 2014 for "a Consultancy Agreement" to a bank account associated with a company called Rosemont Seneca Thornton that was associated with Hunter Biden's business partners. Biden's lawyer has said that he was not a co-founder of Rosemont Seneca Thornton, had no interest in it and did not have a financial relationship with Baturina.

NATO

Trump

"I've got the NATO countries to put up an extra $130 billion going to $420 billion a year."

The facts

Trump falsely claims this is $130 billion a year, rather than over four years. The $420 billion figure is for eight years. Throughout the 2016 campaign and his presidency, Trump has demonstrated that he has little notion of how NATO is funded and operates. He repeatedly claimed that other members of the alliance "owed" money to the United States and that they were delinquent in their payments. Then he claimed credit for the money "pouring in" as a result of his jawboning, even though much of the increase in those countries' contributions had been set under guidelines arranged during the Obama administration. NATO figures show that the defense expenditures for NATO countries other than the U.S. have been going up since 2014, when NATO decided to boost spending in response to Russia's seizure of Ukraine's Crimea region.

China

Biden

"He has caused the deficit with China to go up, not down."

The facts

This is misleading. The trajectory of the trade deficit with China — the gap between what America exports to China and what it imports — has gone up or down depending on how you calculate the numbers. The trade deficit in goods with China fell sharply between 2018 and 2019 as Trump's tariffs on Chinese goods cut down on trade between the world's largest economies. So far this year, the trade deficit with China is running below last year's levels, as the United States imports fewer products amid the coronavirus. But those numbers aren't a significant improvement from the end of President Barack Obama's last term — and Trump's trade war has imposed significant costs on American businesses and consumers to get to that goal. The U.S. trade deficit in goods with China was $347 billion in 2016, compared with $345 billion in 2019.

Health care

Trump

"Pre-existing conditions will always stay. What I would like to do is a much better health care. … So I'd like to terminate Obamacare, come up with a brand-new, beautiful health care."

The facts

The Affordable Care Act, enacted in 2010, guarantees that insurers must sell plans to people with pre-existing health conditions, from cancer, asthma and heart disease, to diabetes, mental illness and other ailments. The law says that people in the same geographic area and age group and who buy similar plans must pay similar prices. Trump has been trying to undo the law since taking office. He has promised a replacement plan for nearly four years that he has never produced. The Trump administration has filed a brief in the Supreme Court arguing that the entire ACA, including its coverage guarantee for patients with pre-existing conditions, "must fall." If the court strikes down the law, as Trump is asking, patients with pre-existing conditions would be left exposed.

Economy

Biden

"We should be bailing them out, now, those small businesses. One in six are going under. They are not going to make it back."

The facts

It's not clear what data point Biden is referencing here, but it's in the ballpark of what small business surveys have suggested could happen if the coronavirus persists and prevents normal activity from resuming. For instance, a National Federation of Independent Business survey in August found that one in five small businesses said that they would have to close their doors if economic conditions do not improve over the subsequent six months. Economic conditions have improved along some dimensions since then, but the service sector in particular remains hard-hit amid the pandemic. The number of workers filing new unemployment claims fell last week, to 757,000, the government reported, but the levels remain achingly high as the incipient economic recovery struggles to maintain a foothold.