Can dormant bears help us heal?

  • Article by: BILL MCAULIFFE , Star Tribune
  • Updated: December 26, 2009 - 11:26 PM

Hibernation research might someday help humans recover from injury or disease.

view larger photos

  

CAMP RIPLEY, MINN. - For two winters now, a mother bear has been denning on George Vilinski's land. A few tracks last spring are the only signs he has seen.

"She's like a ghost," he said.

But researchers are hoping this bear and others around the state will reveal some mysteries about hibernation -- and how it might be used to help humans.

"It could have a lot of positive benefits if we find out what these bears are doing," said Paul Iaizzo, a surgery professor and principal investigator at the University of Minnesota's Visible Heart lab.

Recently Iaizzo and a team of researchers from the University of Minnesota, Medtronic and the Department of Natural Resources visited the bear on Vilinski's land, and others in northern and northwestern Minnesota, to see what they might be able to detect from small heart monitors they implanted last spring.

Hauling nearly $150,000 worth of computers, electrocardiographic recording devices, infrared cameras and ultrasound equipment (not to mention surgical equipment and 40 pounds of batteries) through the woods, the team set up a makeshift physiology lab on the snow only yards downhill from the snow-covered den in a knot of tree roots next to a small pond. For the next few hours they would use it to paint one of the most detailed pictures to date of a bear's inner workings.

It's already known that bears in hibernation don't eat, drink, urinate or defecate for five months. Yet they don't starve. By recycling their own waste, they avoid buildups of toxins. They don't exercise, yet they lose only a fraction of the muscle strength humans would if they were idle that long. Their hearts might slow to five beats per minute, yet they maintain heart strength and structure.

Unlike other animals such as squirrels, whose hibernation temperatures can drop to near freezing, bears' body temperatures drop only a few degrees. With predators (and researchers) combing the woods, they also remain alert and able to spring into action, contrary to the popular understanding of hibernation as a long snooze.

If humans someday could be made to perform the same tricks as bears, they might use them not to get through winter, but to recover from injury, surgery or long periods of bed rest. Iaizzo's lab has shown that substances that cause a bear to go into hibernation may have applications in humans to protect organs from damage from oxygen deprivation.

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration also has funded some research on bears in the belief that their retention of muscle strength could be adapted to help astronauts reduce atrophy during long periods in space.

"There are numerous things about bears that are miraculous, based on what we know about human physiology, and what we believe mammals can tolerate," Iaizzo said. "But the more work we do, the more questions that arise."

Little laboratory in the woods

Answers to some of those questions came in their north woods laboratory.

The team already knew that a hibernating bear might slow its heart and breathing to rates that would cause a human to faint, yet with a single breath could boost its heart's blood and oxygen-pumping capacity eightfold. They also knew that the mother bear they were testing was known for a high level of vigilance in hibernation.

"She's the angry female," said Brian Dirks, Camp Ripley animal survey coordinator. "She doesn't sleep very sound."

Tim Laske, an adjunct professor of surgery at the University of Minnesota and engineering director at Medtronic, learned that when he slipped a camera attached to a long stick into her den as she seemed to be slipping under the effects of a tranquilizer. In a flash she was lunging teeth-first at the lens.

More than an hour later, confident that the 251-pound mother bear was tranquilized, the team dragged her onto plastic yoga mats, where Laske would try to find the implanted heart monitor. It's a titanium device about the size of a computer flash drive, and Laske didn't have much hope. Bears have strong immune systems that have rejected devices in the past, and nine months in the brush can be tough on high-tech electronics.

Laske patted the bear's chest. "Here it is!" he shouted. Within minutes, Iaizzo had attached electrodes to the bear's chest and to a computer, and measurements of the bear's heart rate, stored since March 7, poured into a database.

It was, Iaizzo said, "data no one else really has from an animal that's been out in the wild for nine months."

Laske noted that the bear had experienced 60,126 episodes of bradycardia -- periods with extremely low heart rate, sometimes stopping altogether for as long as nine seconds. (One of the other bears reported pauses of more than 14 seconds.) Second assessment: She'd gone into hibernation in late November.

After the first data download, Iaizzo brought up some ultrasound images on a small screen of the interior of the bear's heart as it beat -- similar to those used to check development of fetuses. An electrocardiographic monitor measured the heart's electrical and mechanical activity.

After two hours of body measurements, blood tests and other exams by Dirks and DNR bear biologist Dave Garshelis, the mother and cub were shoved back into the den.

They won't remember a thing

The bears, Iaizzo said, wouldn't recall the encounter. But the researchers expect to be replaying it quite a bit, through the piles of data they downloaded.

Lynn Rogers, director of the North American Bear Center in Ely and a world-renowned bear researcher, said the implanted devices seem to corroborate research done several decades ago. "That's a good thing," he said. Rogers uses time and trust to approach bears and measure their heartbeats by hand; he said he would never use an implant. But he said he'll be interested in further results from the devices.

Laske and Iaizzo said researchers have their fingers crossed that some features of hibernation might someday be induced in humans. Conservation of the heart's energy, particularly, might help injured people's bodies focus on healing. Substances that induce hibernation might be used to preserve donor hearts for longer periods before they are transplanted, as well as to protect heart muscles from further damage after an attack.

"I think where we owe the bears a debt of gratitude is in learning things we previously didn't think were possible, and opening the minds of scientists to other possibilities of human therapies," Laske said.

At his home near the bear's den, Vilinski said he's looking forward to spring when the researchers return to check on the bear and her cub.

"Having [the bears] out here like this, I enjoy it," he said. "It's interesting. I just wish a guy could see her once in a while."

Bill McAuliffe • 612-673-7646

  • related content

  • Graphic: Bears in hibernation

    Friday January 8, 2010

    Graphic explains the effects of hibernating in bears.

  • Gathering heart rate data

  • get related content delivered to your inbox

  • manage my email subscriptions

Click here to send us your hunting or fishing photos – and to see what others are showing off from around the region.

ADVERTISEMENT

Team Irvin 32 FINAL
Team Carter 28
Miami 96 FINAL
Chicago 84
Oklahoma City 98 FINAL
Cleveland 108
Dallas 106 FINAL
New Orleans 109
Indiana 106 FINAL
Orlando 99
LA Clippers 120 FINAL
Phoenix 100
Minnesota 100 FINAL
Atlanta 112
Detroit 110 FINAL
Toronto 114
Milwaukee 95 FINAL
San Antonio 101
Boston 111 FINAL
Golden State 114
Washington 117 FINAL
Denver 115
Houston 99 FINAL
LA Lakers 87
Team Toews 17 FINAL
Team Foligno 12
South Florida 53 FINAL
Connecticut 66
Boston College 64 FINAL
Georgia Tech 62
Virginia 50 FINAL
Virginia Tech 47
Indiana 70 FINAL
Ohio State 82
Stony Brook 61 FINAL
Binghamton 54
Cincinnati 56 FINAL
UCF 46
Maine 70 FINAL
Hartford 61
Monmouth 64 FINAL
Manhattan 71
Fairfield 67 FINAL
Marist 73
Rowan 48 FINAL
Princeton 96
St Bonaventure 48 FINAL
Rhode Island 53
Duke 77 FINAL
St Johns 68
Saint Peters 69 FINAL
Siena 55
Drake 40 FINAL
Wichita State 74
Vermont 61 FINAL
UMass Lowell 50
Seton Hall 57 FINAL
Butler 77
NJIT 72 FINAL
South Alabama 55
Northern Iowa 54 FINAL
Illinois State 53
Louisville 80 FINAL
Pittsburgh 68
UMBC 55 FINAL
Albany 69
Niagara 64 FINAL
Iona 87
Notre Dame 81 FINAL
NC State 78
Belmont 63 FINAL
Tennessee St 55
Creighton 50 FINAL
Villanova 71
Northwestern 67 FINAL
Maryland 68
Washington 56 FINAL
Utah 77
Senior-North 34 FINAL
Senior-South 13
Seton Hall 99 FINAL
Georgetown 85
St Johns 69 FINAL
Villanova 81
Arkansas 58 FINAL
Florida 72
Maine 56 FINAL
UMBC 42
Vanderbilt 55 FINAL
Alabama 52
Lafayette 60 FINAL
Lehigh 65
UCF 61 FINAL
SMU 57
Utah 51 FINAL
Washington 63
James Madison 73 FINAL
Coll of Charleston 53
Delaware 56 FINAL
Drexel 61
Hofstra 56 FINAL
William & Mary 57
Hartford 58 FINAL
Albany 82
Binghamton 54 FINAL
Stony Brook 67
Towson 63 FINAL
UNC-Wilmington 71
Wake Forest 80 FINAL
(17) Florida State 110
Georgia Tech 68 FINAL
Virginia 62
(22) Georgia 51 FINAL
(5) Tennessee 59
Drake 79 FINAL
Evansville 62
Iona 80 FINAL
Canisius 62
Fairfield 33 FINAL
Monmouth 59
Northwestern 75 FINAL
Penn State 76
Wisconsin 71 FINAL
Michigan State 77
Ohio State 79 FINAL
Purdue 71
Northern Iowa 57 FINAL
Indiana State 55
Butler 58 FINAL
Xavier 54
Creighton 93 FINAL
Marquette 75
Providence 42 FINAL
DePaul 90
Northeastern 77 FINAL
Elon 80
(2) Connecticut 96 FINAL
Cincinnati 31
Oregon 78 FINAL
Arizona 81
Bradley 46 FINAL
Loyola-Chicago 45
NC State 49 FINAL
(23) Syracuse 66
(7) Maryland 84 FINAL
Indiana 74
Illinois State 35 FINAL
Missouri State 58
Colorado 68 FINAL
Washington St 73
Tulane 45 FINAL
South Florida 64
(14) Kentucky 83 FINAL
Missouri 69
(9) Oregon State 68 FINAL
(13) Arizona State 57
Vermont 63 FINAL
UMass Lowell 72
Iowa State 58 FINAL
(8) Texas 57
Southern Ill 61 FINAL
Wichita State 80
(15) Duke 74 FINAL
(12) North Carolina 67
Miami-Florida 55 FINAL
(4) Louisville 68
(21) Minnesota 61 FINAL
(25) Rutgers 66
California 72 FINAL
UCLA 57
(11) Stanford 71 FINAL
USC 60
Connect with twitterConnect with facebookConnect with Google+Connect with PinterestConnect with PinterestConnect with RssfeedConnect with email newsletters

ADVERTISEMENT

ADVERTISEMENT

ADVERTISEMENT

ADVERTISEMENT

question of the day

Poll: Should the lake where the albino muskie was caught remain a mystery?

Weekly Question

ADVERTISEMENT

 
Close