Anderson: With extreme heat come fish die-offs
- Blog Post by: Dennis Anderson
- July 11, 2012 - 11:22 AM
More fish die in warm water than cold, because warm water holds too little dissolved oxygen, imperiling fish. Reports nationwide say heat has killed fish in Delaware, South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, South Dakota and here in Minnesota, where hundreds have died in Albert Lea’s Fountain Lake and Austin’s East Side Lake, among other lakes. How to help? Muskie anglers (as above) in southern Minnesota should consider stowing their big sticks until water temperatures drop. Better yet, head north. And walleye anglers on “hot’’ lakes should consider methods other than “rigging’’ with live bait and sliding sinkers on long leaders. Fish take these baits deep, and die disproportionately after release in warm water. Jigs, crankbaits, even slip bobbers are better in these circumstances
Other conditions generally related to heat and/or summer weather also can contribute to fish die-offs, the DNR said in a news release issued Wednesday, a portion of which follows:
Heavy rains earlier in the summer caused unusually high runoff from fertilized lawns, athletic fields, golf courses and farm fields, starting a chain reaction of high nutrient loads in some lakes.
The runoff carries nutrients into the lakes, which combined with hot weather, can accelerate the growth of algae. Hot, dry, sunny and calm weather can cause algae growths to suddenly explode, according to Craig Soupir, DNR fisheries habitat specialist.
“Aquatic plants remain relatively stable over time, but algae have the ability to rapidly increase or decrease under various conditions,” Soupir said.
Algae produces oxygen during the daylight hours, but it uses oxygen at night. This can create drastic daily changes in lake oxygen levels. These daily changes can result in complete saturation of oxygen during peak sunlight and a near complete loss of oxygen during the night. “All of this can add up to stressful conditions for fish,” Soupir said, “and even summer kill events.” Fish don’t seem to sense when oxygen depletion occurs and may suffocate in isolated bays, even when another area of the lake contains higher levels of oxygen.
Disease may also be a contributing factor to some fish kills. Schultz explained that when lake temperatures rapidly change, fish can become more susceptible to bacteria and viruses that naturally occur in the water. Columnaris is one of the most common diseases.
The bacterium is always present in fish populations but seems to affect fish when water temperatures are warming rapidly and fish are undergoing some stress due to spawning. Fish may die or be seen weakly swimming along shores. Species affected are usually sunfish, crappies and bullheads and occasionally, largemouth bass and northern pike.
“It is difficult to pin a summer kill on just one cause,” Schultz said, “and although it is a natural occurrence, it can be disturbing.”
Fish kills are usually not serious in the long run. Most lakes contain thousands of fish per acre and the fish kills represents a very small percent of that total.
Some positive effects from partial fish kills is that it creates an open niche in the fish population, allowing the remaining fish species to grow faster with less competition.
Minnesota lakes are resilient. The DNR has documented these conditions many times over and lake conditions and fish populations do return to managed expectations, either naturally or with the help of stocking if necessary.
If strange behavior is seen in fish, contact the local DNR fisheries office immediately. “If we can sample fish before they die, we may be able to learn what’s going on in the lake,” Schultz said. “Once the fish are dead it can be difficult to determine what happened.”
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