• September 3, 2011 - 11:24 PM


A guide to what was found in the synthetic drugs analyzed for the Star Tribune.


Mixture of dried herbs sprayed with psychoactive chemicals and sold as herbal incense, K2 or Spice.

JWH compounds: Interact with the same brain receptors as THC, the active ingredient in marijuana. Include JWH-018, JWH-122 and others.

RCS-4: Synthetic "cannabinoid." Produces effects similar to JWH compounds.

AM-2201: One of five synthetic cannabinoids banned by U.S. authorities in 2011.


Sold as bath salts, plant food and research chemicals.

MDPV: Produces effects similar to cocaine or amphetamines.

3 or 4 Flouromethcathinone and 3,4 Dimethylmethcathinone: Members of cathinone class of drugs, named for substance found in the khat plant.

MDAI: Developed in the 1990s. An analog of outlawed rave drug MDMA, also known as Ecstasy.

1-1-Benzofuran-6yl-propan-2 amine: Like MDAI, produces psychedelic effects and stimulation.

Caffeine: Toxic at high concentrations. Could cause users to take extra doses in search of a high, leading to a possible overdose.


Sold as bath salts.

5-MeO-DALT: A psychedelic tryptamine first synthesized by prolific California chemist Alexander Shulgin.


Sold as a "research chemical."

Methoxy phencyclidine: A close chemical relative of PCP or angel dust, which is known to cause severe hallucinations and the "Superman" effect.


Lidocaine: Found in most of the bath salts. Used by doctors to numb tissue but also by illicit drugmakers to dilute or boost a drug. Experts say its undisclosed presence is bad because a lidocaine overdose can be fatal.

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