Transite asbestos was a common product used to vent gas appliances such as furnaces, boilers, and water heaters in older homes in Minnesota. This material is no longer used because the interior of the vent can deteriorate and flake apart, collapsing in on itself. That, and it contains asbestos. Once the interior of the flue deteriorates it can get blocked, causing hazardous exhaust gases from the appliance to vent back into the home, rather than be carried to the exterior.
The photos below show a transite asbestos chimney flue liner found during an inspection of a 1955 built home in Columbia Heights. The top of the flue liner had fallen off the chimney, and the interior had collapsed in on itself, causing the water heater to backdraft. This first photo shows what the chimney looked like from the roof.
I had to bring a ladder onto the roof to get to the top of the chimney to get a look down the section on the far right.
Here's the top section of the transite flue liner that had fallen off of the chimney.
Here's another shot looking at the top of the chimney.
Here are a couple of shots looking down the flue.
As you can see in the photo above, the interior had flaked apart and completely blocked the flue. When the happens, the exhaust gases can't escape, so they go back into the home. There was heavy rust staining on top of the water heater, which is a telltale sign that the water heater backdrafts. It doesn't get much more obvious than that.
This fix is to leave the transite asbestos material in place, block the openings at the top and bottom of the chimney, and replace the water heater with either an electric unit or a powervent unit that can vent out the side of the house.
When buying a home with a transite asbestos flue liner / vent, be sure to have the interior of the flue inspected. If it's in pristine condition, as some of them still are, just plan to not use it again once the gas appliances that are connected to it are replaced. If the flue is deteriorated, have it abandoned immediately for safety. An HVAC contractor can help to figure out a different way to vent the existing appliances, or can replace the existing appliances with new ones that don't need to use the transite asbestos flue.
For anyone curious about what other transite asbestos flues looks like, check out the photo gallery below. These are all transite asbestos flues that I've found while inspecting older homes, mostly in Minneapolis. In each case, it's that white stuff.
Author: Reuben Saltzman, Structure Tech Home Inspections
That's a quote from ASHI Certified Inspector John Bouldin, Ph.D, in the May issue of the ASHI Reporter. I've already blogged about the importance of strong guardrails at decks, and I've blogged about the importance of properly attaching a deck to the house, but I need to revisit that last topic. After attending an excellent seminar at Inspection World by John Bouldin on deck inspections, I have a little more information to share about one of the more common deck construction defects that home inspectors come across on a regular basis.
Decks typically shouldn't be attached to cantilevered floors*.
The image above comes from the Prescriptive Residential Wood Deck Construction Guide. The problem with attaching a deck to a cantilevered floor is that there is nothing below the cantilever (overhang) to keep the rim joist at the house from pulling loose; there is no support below it. John Bouldin had some excellent diagrams illustrating exactly why this is so important and exactly how this connection can fail, and was kind enough to share them with me.
This first diagram shows a traditional deck connection. The deck joist is at the far right, which is connected to a metal joist hanger, which is nailed into the deck ledgerboard. The deck ledgerboard is connected to the house with lag screws, which are attached to a 1" engineered rim board. The rim board is fully supported below by either a wall or a foundation. That's good stuff. That's how it should be done.
This next diagram shows a cantilevered connection. Everything in this diagram is pretty much the same, except the floor of the house is now cantilevered. The rim board for the house is no longer supported from beneath.
What happens when the rim board has no support? It can fail. The animation below shows how this can happen.
If there was support directly below the rim board for the house, this couldn't happen. That's why attaching a deck to a cantilevered floor is generally a bad idea. When a deck is built around a cantilevered section of the house, the most common way of supporting it at the house is to have the floor framing headered off, as shown in the diagram below.
If this is done, just be sure that the ledgerboard is large enough to support the added weight. The two photos below show an example of a deck that was headered off at the patio door, but all of the weight was concentrated to a tiny little piece of wood that you could hardly call a ledgerboard, and was simply nailed to the house. I made a big stink about this.
The fix for this particular deck was to have posts installed near the house.
*Of course, there are always exceptions; sometimes it's perfectly fine to attach a deck to a cantilever. If someone went out of their way to make this connection more secure by installing upside-down joist hangers at the house and the framing consisted of all dimensional lumber, it would probably work fine. As a home inspector, I usually don't get to see those details though. That's why I raise concerns over these types of connections while conducting deck inspections.
Author: Reuben Saltzman, Structure Tech Home Inspections
After writing a blog post about leaking temperature and pressure relief (TPR) valves at water heaters, I learned that this particular issue seems to completely befuddle folks. In the two years that I allowed comments, that post received 245 comments, including my own. The majority of the comments were questions from readers who were trying to troubleshoot their own leaking TPR valves.
I spent so much time responding to questions on that one blog post alone that I finally disabled comments on blog posts over 90 days old. Responding to reader comments on old blog posts was turning into a part-time gig for me.
The good news is that while answering reader questions, I ended up doing a fair amount of research to help myself understand problems that people were having, and to make sure that the advice I was giving was correct. The purpose of this blog post is to give some troubleshooting advice to people with leaking TPR valves.
All water heaters are equipped with a temperature and pressure relief valve. This valve will allow water or steam to escape from the water heater if the temperature or pressure gets too high; these valves are set to open when the pressure reaches 150 psi, or when the temperature reaches 210 degrees fahrenheit. This prevents water heaters from exploding or turning into missiles.
The rest of this blog post is going to be about troubleshooting a leaking TPR valve. If a TPR valve leaks, either it's defective or it's not. If it's not defective, it's leaking because the temperature was too high or the pressure was too high. In other words, a leaking TPR valve indicates one of these things: a defective valve, excessive pressure, or excessive temperature.
As I mentioned earlier, the TPR valve on a water heater is set to go off at 150 psi, or 210 degrees Fahrenheit. These numbers will be printed right on the valve, or on a tag attached to the valve. See below.
If a pressure relief valve for a boiler is accidentally installed on a water heater, it will leak like crazy from the start. These valves may look identical, but they're set to go off at 30 psi, not 150 psi.
If the proper valve is installed and it leaks, go on to step 2.
As I mentioned in my original post about leaking TPR valves, an easy troubleshooting step is to replace the leaking valve. TPR valves cost less than $15 and they're fairly easy to replace. If you're not sure how to go about doing this, hire a plumber. If you're trying to do this on the cheap because you can't afford a plumber, search YouTube for videos of "relief valve replacement". You'll find a ton of 'em there.
If a new, proper TPR valve leaks, it's probably just doing its job. It's relieving excessive temperature or pressure. The next step is to figure out which one it is.
This one is pretty simple. Run some hot water at a plumbing fixture and take a temperature reading with a meat thermometer. Make sure there are no tempering valves installed between the water heater and the faucet; whole-house tempering valves are typically installed at the water heater, and look like the type shown in the photo below, which I used in my blog post about safe water temperatures. If one of these valves is installed, the temperature you'll get at the faucet will be less than the temperature inside the tank, by design.
New single handle bath tub faucets installed in Minnesota since 2013 also require tempering valves (http://www.structuretech1.com/2013/04/new-safety-requirements-for-bath-tub-faucets-in-minnesota/). Those valves are typically installed below the bath tub, but can sometimes be found near the water heater.
For the record, a safe temperature for water coming out of faucets is 120 degrees. Temperatures in the 150 degree range are downright dangerous and in need of attention, but still wouldn't explain a leaking TPR valve. Temperatures really need to approach boiling to set off a TPR valve. This is extremely unlikely, but I suppose it is a possibility.
If the pressure in the plumbing system exceeds 150 psi, the TPR valve will leak. Getting to the bottom of this issue should be quite simple and straightforward. Buy a pressure gauge with an extra indicator to show surges, and connect it to the plumbing system. It doesn't matter if it's connected to a hot or cold water pipe, because both will be at the same pressure.
The easiest way to do this is to get a gauge with a garden hose thread, connect it to an outside garden hose faucet (sillcock), and open up the faucet. You should expect the pressure to be somewhere in the 40 - 80 psi range, with no other water running. If the pressure is over 80 psi, it should be corrected. The solution is to have a pressure regulator installed. Get a plumber to do that.
If the pressure is within the acceptable range, you play the waiting game. Once the temperature and pressure relief valve at the water heater leaks, go check the pressure gauge. If the 'surge indicator' shows something at or near 150 psi, the problem is excessive pressure. Excessive pressure is typically the result of a closed system; the water heats up and expands, but it doesn't have anywhere to go, so the relief valve does it's job and relieves the pressure. The solution, as I mentioned in my original blog post (http://www.structuretech1.com/2012/01/leaking-relief-valve/), is to install an expansion tank. If an expansion tank is already installed and there is still a problem with excessive pressure, either the expansion tank is not installed properly or it's not charged properly.
I may write another post later this year on solving excessive pressure, because that seems to be the most common problem that people deal with.
Author: Reuben Saltzman, Structure Tech Home Inspections
If you're buying an old house, beware of old water pipes; specifically, galvanized steel. These pipes build up with sediment on the inside, making the inside diameter of the pipe smaller and smaller over time, eventually to the point where water flow is unusable. These pipes also corrode at the joints, which can lead to leaks.
The mere presence of galvanized pipes doesn't constitute an immediate action item, but it does mean that the water distribution pipes in the house should be looked at and tested more thoroughly during the home inspection, especially if there is any evidence of past leaks.
The water supply piping is what brings water from the street to the house. To identify the type of material, take a look at the water piping where it comes into the basement before the first shutoff valve, which should be located right before the water meter. If this water piping has a threaded fitting, it's probably a galvanized supply pipe. This is always bad news. The other types of water supply pipes are copper, plastic, and lead. Copper and plastic are good news, lead is not.
If you see a thicker pipe coming up out of the basement floor with threads on the end, it's probably a galvanized supply pipe. Galvanized or lead water pipes were installed in Minneapolis homes exclusively up until 1928, and in Saint Paul homes up until 1925. Minneapolis' transition to copper water supply pipes was complete by 1932, and Saint Paul's transition was complete by 1926.
Most Minnesota homes with galvanized supply pipes have such poor water flow that doing laundry and taking a shower at the same time is not possible. If the home is in Minneapolis, take a look at item #19 on the Truth-In-Sale of Housing evaluation report; this item asks if the water supply piping is copper. If the piping is copper, this item should be marked as "M". If the piping is something else, such as galvanized steel, lead, or plastic, this item should be rated "C" for comment, and there should be a comment stating the water supply piping was not copper.
A better description for item #19 would probably be "Copper or Plastic Water Line Visible on the Street Side of Water Meter", but these reports have a lot of old language in them that takes a lot of effort to change.
If the water piping coming into the home can't be found, access is blocked, or the main valve is located too close to the floor to determine the type of water supply piping, one option is to call the municipal water works department to find out what type of water supply piping the house has. This is easy to do in Minneapolis, as they keep detailed records of exactly what type of water supply pipe was installed, and when it was installed. The two photos below show a home with a galvanized water supply; all that can be seen is copper, but the piping below the earth is actually galvanized.
I've had a couple of inspections in Minneapolis where the water flow throughout the house was quite minimal, yet all of the water piping looked great, and there was a copper water supply entering the house. In those cases, my curiosity got the best of me and I called the water works department to get the history on the water supply. Apparently, the water supply piping didn't always get replaced entirely. In some cases, there would only be a partial replacement out to the street. The fix is to have the yard / street dug up again and have the rest of the water supply replaced.
An easy way to determine a problem with the water supply pipe is to quickly turn on an exterior faucet. If water comes out with a burst but the flow drops noticeably after a fraction of a second, it's almost certainly a problem with the water supply for the house. In most cases, this indicates an old galvanized supply pipe, but could also indicate a problem with an old lead supply pipe. The video clip below shows an example of this, but it's not very easy to see. There is only a slight change in flow, but it was enough for me to know there was a problem.
For a more obvious example, check out the clip below. When the water is turned on at the garden hose it bursts out, then the flow drops down dramatically. This is because there is plenty of pressure, but insufficient flow. A common concern that home buyers express is for the home inspector to make sure the home has "good water pressure", but what they really mean is "good water flow."
The clip shown above was also the first clip in a compilation of 47 home inspection video clips in under 3 minutes that I put together, which I have featured at the top of our home page. I've received a number of requests to explain some of the problems in that video, and I'll be attempting to do that through blog posts over the next year or two.
If the water supply pipe to a house needs replacement, plan to spend several thousand dollars. The yard will need to be dug up and the water supply pipe replaced out to the street. The homeowner pays for this. If the city water line is on the opposite side of the street, it's more expensive. To determine which side of the street the water supply is on, look for fire hydrants.
If the home has a lead supply pipe, water flow may be restricted because of a damaged pipe, but I've inspected plenty of homes with lead water supply pipes that still had acceptable water flow. The other obvious concern with a lead water supply is with lead leaching into the drinking water for the home. In these cases, the water can be tested for lead. Visit the EPA for more info on lead in water.
Galvanized steel water distribution pipes were used almost exclusively in Minnesota homes up until about 1950, when copper tubing began to replace galvanized pipes. Copper gradually replaced galvanized piping during the 1950's, and was about the only thing used for water pipes in homes by 1960. CPVC and PB tubing gained some popularity during the 90's and early 2000's, but today PEX is pretty much the only thing used for water distribution piping in new Minnesota homes.
To identify the presence of galvanized pipes, start by looking in the basement. As soon as the water supply pipe enters the house, there will be a shutoff valve, a water meter, then another valve. After that, the water distribution pipes will branch off to the rest of the house. If the home has been re-piped or partially re-piped, it will probably have been done with copper or PEX tubing. It's easy to tell the difference between copper tubing and galvanized pipes because galvanized pipes have threaded fittings, while copper tubing has soldered joints.
If the home has been partially re-piped, there will typically be newer copper tubing in the basement, and the water lines will transition to galvanized piping at the basement ceiling just before disappearing into the walls. The photo below shows an example of a partial replacement by some complete hack.
Sometimes, houses can have galvanized pipes that are still in acceptable condition, and water flow is still acceptable. To help determine if water flow is acceptable, try this test that I've adopted from the Minneapolis Truth-In-Sale of Housing Evaluator Guidelines. Start by running hot and cold water at the laundry sink faucet, then run upstairs to the highest plumbing fixture, preferably a shower, and verify there's still water flow. If there is no water flow or insufficient flow to take a shower, it's a major concern.
In most cases, no flow at the upper fixtures under these conditions indicates a problem with the water supply pipe, or old galvanized water distribution pipes in need of replacement. A couple of other possibilities would be a main shutoff valve that's partially closed, or a problem with a water softener that restricts water flow throughout the house.
There are too many variables for me to cover every possible scenario, but hopefully these tips give enough info to conduct a basic test for water flow on old houses.
Author: Reuben Saltzman, Structure Tech Home Inspections
This is a guest blog post by Ryan Carey, of My 3 Quotes.
Tell me if you can identify with this scenario- You bought your house before 2008, when values were at their most inflated. Your credit isn't bad, but you still don't have any equity since your house value plummeted 30-40% after you bought it. Now you're looking around the house and notice that the wood windows are turning black where the glass meets the wood. You finally go outside after this awful winter to see your masonite siding deteriorating where the s.now sat up against it. When you go back inside, you are reminded that the last time your kitchen was in style there was a kid sitting in it eating Frankenberry and watching "The Great Space Coaster" on a TV with a big knob to change the channels.
You need to get work done, but you don't have a pile of cash sitting in the garage. A home equity line of credit may get you the best interest rate, but that doesn't seem possible with no equity. Don't worry. There are more financing options than you think to get started on your much-needed improvements, even if the journey of your home's equity reminds you of a certain movie about a doomed ship with Leo and Kate on board.
Unsecured Options-12 month no interest Nearly every contractor that comes to your house will have a number of unsecured financing options that are not secured by the home's mortage, but rely on your credit score. They will have options like Wells Fargo, GE, or Ennerbank to get your project moving. One of the most popular programs is "12 Month No Interest." This is a great plan if you actually plan on paying it off before the year is over. If you don't, interest will come back to day one at an obscene interest rate like 24.9%. You are better off locking in to one of their loans with a fixed rate if you won't have it paid off in time. With an unsecured loan (not secured by the home mortgage), the interest rates are typically in the 7.99% to 9.99% range.
There is one important thing to know with any of these plans, however. The contractors have to pay a fee each time they get used. You don't get interest-free money from any bank in any situation, so there is a fee that the contractor pays to use it. It could be in the 5% range, which can add up fast on a larger job. Therefore, if a contractor offers interest-free financing and you WON'T be using it, it is a very fair question to ask "Do I get an extra discount if I don't use your financing, since that costs you money?" You could ask the same about a cash discount vs credit card use, since contractors have to pay a fee to use credit cards as well.
MHFA and CEE If you need improvements done on your house, you should get to know these initials well. The MHFA (Minnesota Housing Finance Agency) and CEE (Center for Energy and Environment) are great places to look for home improvement financing. The MHFA also is involved with many other programs, such as first-time home buyer loans. They show a list of lenders that administrate their loans, so there is always one close to your area. They work with the Fix Up Fund, which allows loans of up to $50,000 at 5.99% interest rate for households with less than $96,500 of yearly income. There is also an unsecured option at 6.99% up to $15,000.
The MHFA and CEE also deal with Energy Conservation Loans for improvements that help with energy bills, which has NO INCOME CAP and has an interest rate of 4.99% for up to $15,000 of loans. This includes windows, insulation, air sealing, furnace, A/C, water heaters, etc... This loan has been expanded to include "accessibility" improvements for the disabled, such as ramps, widening of halls or doorways, adding hand rails, bathroom fixture modifications, and moving outlets or switches. There are secured and unsecured options for this loan.
For those of us who are a little short on home equity but would like the secured option- The Fix Up Loan has a secured loan option at 5.99%, but the loan can be based on %110 of the house value AFTER the improvement. Usually, they can approve about half of the value of the home improvement for the home appraisal. These are VERY general terms, some projects may get more immediate value, and some may get less.
CEE The CEE is one of the lenders that works with MHFA programs, and they have some of their own as well. They have a customer friendly website that allows you to see what they have available for your city. Click on the "Find Financing" tab, and it will ask you to enter your city. It will then show all programs available for you. Some cities have funds available at different times, but residents may not have heard about it. Some funds end up being an up-front loan that homeowners don't need to pay back until they sell the house.
The CEE also has the Home Energy loans that have no income cap and attractive financing rates. They have applications you can download from the site and send in to their loan officers for processing. The nice thing about home energy loans is that you are doing improvements that should cut down on energy bills to help offset your monthly payment.
City Websites With some of the bigger cities, it is also a good idea to check out the city website and look up "Home Improvement" programs. The city of St Paul is currently offering loans to people in two neighborhoods with high foreclosure rates. They don't have to be paid back until the house is sold. Funds like that are available for a certain time, then they're gone.
I hope you find this helpful. As always, you need to be able to afford your improvement and saving up beforehand and paying cash is the best way to avoid fees and interest. However, if your house is in dire need of improvement and financing is needed, there is more than one way to skin that proverbial cat. As always, I'm available for questions through the website below.
Ryan Carey has 15 years of experience in exterior remodeling for Twin Cities Homeowners and Property Management Companies. He is the owner of “My 3 Quotes,” a company that provides the free service of collecting 3 competitive home improvement bids for customers. For more information, visit www.getmy3quotes.com for free home improvement estimates on window replacement and more.