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Swanson said he "isn't qualified" to judge whether the conditions are part of a trend caused by global warming. "But in my opinion, the last two years have been the most open we've ever seen it," he said. "Something has changed."
About 30 boats have made the entire trek through this part of the Arctic Circle, but Meier said most of them had ice-cutting abilities. He said he wouldn't be surprised if climate changes make the passage more navigable in the future.
The crew left July 19 from Halifax, Nova Scotia, and sailed around-the-clock, rotating with four hours on duty and eight hours off, unless there was severe weather. They took turns cooking, and Templin, a sailor who has a boat on Lake Superior, handled weather and communications.
They headed to Newfoundland, then north to the west coast of Greenland. By Aug. 1, they'd reached Erebus Bay, Canada, then on to Cambridge Bay in the Northwest Territories by Aug. 21.
Supplies, from frozen meat to canned goods and beans, were stockpiled in case Cloud Nine again was stranded. Of the 73 days at sea, only about eight were spent harbored because of weather, he said.
"People wonder what we did with our time," Swanson said. "But between sleeping, being on duty and doing maintenance, you really don't have much free time. And because everyone is doing something else, you don't see much of the crew, except at lunch and dinner."
Unprecedented ice conditions
"We expected to see less ice, but we didn't expect almost no ice," said Thoreson, who kept a blog of the journey, adding entries whenever he reached a place he could write.
"I feel strongly that we have witnessed the end of an era and the beginning of a new one," he wrote at one point. "The golden age of exploration, Amundsen's era, has come to a close, and a new era of exploration involving study and change in the Earth's climate is just beginning.
"We on Cloud Nine have experienced both eras. Frozen in and stuck in the ice twice over 13 years, and now sailing through unscathed and witnessing an ice-free Northwest Passage. We have bridged the two eras."
The lack of ice made the trip easier, but it was by no means easy, Swanson and Templin said. They sailed under the constant fear that ice from the north would descend and trap them. Occasional reminders of the danger included the icy graves where other sailers had died.
As if they needed any more reminders, the final stretch of sailing through the Bering Straight to Kodiak was fraught with storms that brought 20- to 30-foot swells and winds of 80 miles per hour.
Swanson, who will return home to Dunnell this week, has sailed around the world three times and was prepared for bad weather. But he thinks he's finally done with the Arctic.
"No. I don't see any reason to ever do it again," he said.
Jon Tevlin firstname.lastname@example.orgJon Tevlin