The new 'first' in patent law

  • Article by: DAVID PHELPS , Star Tribune
  • Updated: March 18, 2013 - 10:58 AM

U.S. patent law underwent a major change with important implications for inventors. Attorney Robert Kalinsky explains what they are.


Robert Kalinsky of Merchant & Gould in the lobby of his office at the IDS Center in downtown Minneapolis.

Photo: JOEL KOYAMA, Star Tribune

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U.S. patent law just underwent a significant transformation.

As of Saturday, patent applications to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) are judged on the basis of which inventing party is the “first to file” for patent protection. The new procedure replaces a more than 200-year-old application process that awarded patents to the party that was the “first to invent.”

While the new procedure affects individual inventors and small companies alike, it is expected to more significantly change the activities of large companies and their R&D operations, according to patent attorneys.

Under the new scenario, companies are being advised to file low-cost provisional patent applications on inventions they may or may not deem significant, to protect their ownership of the invention.

Robert Kalinsky is a patent attorney with the Minneapolis law firm Merchant & Gould and has been busy advising clients on the new procedure.

An attorney with the firm for 12 years, Kalinsky’s areas of expertise include mechanical, electrical and software components, licensing and litigation.

The bulk of Kalinsky’s work is in the prosecution of patents.

Q: What does it mean to prosecute a patent?

A: You help the inventor or company prepare an application for a patent, file it and then go through the patent process.


Q: How long does that take?

A: It varies widely. The quickest it can get done is in about a year. Two to three years is pretty common and some of the patents I’ve been working on have been around for eight to 10 years.


Q: What prompted the change in the patent standard from “first to invent” to “first to file”?

A: It’s mainly a desire to harmonize U.S. patent law with the rest of the world. This will make U.S. law more closely aligned with other significant patent systems in other countries. This is part of the America Invents Act [AIA] that passed Congress a couple of years ago and has been phased in. This is Step 3 and, I believe, the most significant. The current procedure dates back for years and it’s been a long time since the U.S. has done anything this significant. For the garage inventor, it changes little. He or she does what they’ve always done. You come up with an idea, you raise funds and you file for a patent. For large companies that have established patent systems, this is an incentive to go to the patent office quicker.


Q: How will this change the system?

  • Robert Kalinsky
    Title: Partner, Merchant & Gould.
    Age: 39.
    Home: Maple Grove.
    Family: Wife, Kristi; two children.
    Education: University of Iowa degree in biomedical engineering, 1996; University of Iowa law degree, 2000.
    Expertise: Alternative energy, computer technology, electronics, medical devices.
    Interests outside the law: Family, endurance sports, including running and triathlons.
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