That chatty seatmate who can't help bragging about how he paid chump change for the same flight that set you back a paycheck. The e-mail offering a rock-bottom sale on the room you just prepaid as nonrefundable. We've all been there. Here are strategies to transform you into the slightly smug person listening while others whine about the high cost of travel — but no gloating allowed.

Airfares

• New apps and websites pop up constantly, all purporting to be the Holy Grail of low fares. Spend some time getting familiar with several and then choose a couple of favorites to use regularly. Some sites, such as Kayak, are aggregators, meaning they will scan airlines and other sites and point you somewhere else to buy it. Others, such as Expedia, are third-party booking sites. But keep in mind that Southwest, for example, does not sell through third-party sites.

Acquisitions have narrowed the playing field. Expedia now owns many major travel sites, including Travelocity, Orbitz and Hotwire; Booking Holdings owns Priceline, Kayak, Momondo and Booking.com. Other sites worth exploring include Hipmunk, Google Flights, CheapOair, Airfarewatchdog and Skyscanner. Most also have an app. And don't neglect stand-alone apps including Hopper, Kiwi and Hitlist.

Always check fares sold by third-party booking sites against the prices offered by the airline. Take a look at sites such as Scott's Cheap Flights, which notifies subscribers when airlines make pricing mistakes.

• Once you choose a destination, start tracking the fares. Most sites and apps offer tracking features. Many contradicting studies have been published about the best days to buy and travel, and how far in advance to purchase. Instead, familiarize yourself with the going rate. When a sale hits, don't hesitate.

• Flexibility is key. Alternative airports (such as BWI Marshall instead of Washington Dulles International or London Stansted instead of Heathrow), connecting flights, very early or very late departures and midweek flights are often cheaper.

• Fees are the new normal. Nearly every airline now offers sub-economy fares that don't cover checked bags or advance seat assignments. Some discount carriers, including Allegiant and Spirit, also charge for carry-on bags and even printing a boarding pass at the airport. International carriers are no exception. Most discount carriers charge extra for everything from bags to meals. Airlines often waive fees for travelers who have amassed frequent-flier miles or use an airline-branded credit card.

• Don't get obsessed. When the fare hits a chosen target, buy and don't look back.

Lodging

• Scoring the best rate has grown more complex as more websites expand their inventory beyond simple hotel rooms. First, settle on a lodging style. Renting a condo, apartment or house from an owner is typically less expensive than booking a hotel with amenities — but room service won't be an option.

• Sites such as HomeAway (part of the Expedia family, along with VRBO and VacationRentals), Airbnb, Trip­Advisor and Booking.com are the online heavy hitters for private rentals. There are also niche sites, including Onefinestay, which specializes in luxury rentals; Wimdu, for rentals in Europe; Homestay, for travelers who want to lodge with a family; and Misterb & b, which caters to gay travelers. Be aware of laws regulating short-term rentals, as some cities have launched crackdowns. Read the reviews from other renters before committing and never, ever wire anyone money.

In many resort communities, contacting a local real estate agency that handles private rentals is still the way to go. Reach out to the area's tourism office for a list of reputable agencies.

• Some of the same sites that offer private rentals (TripAdvisor and Booking.com, for example) also list hotels, and many of the big online travel sites with airfare search tools (such as Kayak) also cover hotels. TripAdvisor and Hotels.com are good places to start for reviews, locating properties on a map and determining prices.

• Join the major chains' membership clubs and download their apps. Hilton Honors, IHG Rewards Club, Marriott Rewards, Starwood Preferred Guest and Hyatt Rewards cover most of the major chains, and all offer members-only deals.

• Apps such as HotelTonight and One:Night are worth a look, especially for last-minute reservations.

• Nonrefundable rates are cheaper, but think twice. The hotels are serious: No money back if you cancel. Pay attention to the advance cancellation rules, as many hotels have tightened their deadlines to at least 48 hours.

• Before booking, check out the price on the hotel's website, as many are now undercutting third-party booking sites and offering web-only discounts. If the price is still not right, pick up the phone: Reservationists, especially at boutique hotels, may have the power to offer an even better deal.

Package tours

• The pricing is in the details. Read the fine print before opting into a tour. Are meals included? Airport transfers? Sightseeing entrance fees? Tips? Extras can add hundreds to the price.

• The United States Tour Operators Association is a good online resource. A multitude of tour companies cover the same itineraries, so you can comparison shop.

• Major web travel sites, such as Kayak and Travelzoo, also list vacation packages. Many airlines offer money-saving packages by bundling airfare with hotel and land transportation. Discount tour operators, such as Gate 1 Travel, World Spree, Go-Today and Great Value Vacations, offer good pricing on popular itineraries. Book early or last minute to score the best deals.

• Membership organizations such as AAA, AARP and Costco often have good prices.

• Traveling solo? Look for tour operators that will match singles as roommates, such as Intrepid Travel and G Adventures.