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State Climate Office: 2016 First Year With 2 Minnesota "Mega-Rain" Events

One Word to Describe 2016's Weather: "Mega"

Live long enough and you'll see almost everything. Even 2 "mega rains" in one year. A mega-rain is defined as 6 inches of rain over at least 1,000 square miles, with a core of 8 inches. "This is the first time we've seen 2 mega rains in 1 year" said Pete Boulay at the State Climate Office.

Boulay adds that the storm that unleashed over 10 inches on Waseca last week didn't qualify as "mega", because it only had 300-500 square miles of 6-inch rains. Welcome to what may become Minnesota's wettest year on record, statewide.

Mother Nature must be a golf fan. Expect cool sun much of today as chilly winds ease up. Talk about serendipity: this year's Ryder Cup (have you heard about this?) falls on some of the best weather of the entire year. A weak storm stalls over Michigan, but a bubble of high pressure overhead treats us to lukewarm sun & a cool breeze Thursday into Monday morning. Somehow we were able to squeeze a world-class golfing event between floods this year.

NOAA's GFS run brings frosty air into the metro in 2 weeks. Will mega-rains give way to mega-snows?

Stay tuned.


2 Minnesota Mega-Rains in One Calendar Year. Here is what Pete Boulay, at the Minnesota DNR and State Climatology Office had to say about last year's extreme rains in the Waseca area and the state of "mega-rains" in 2016:

"We have determined that the automated tipping bucket at the Waseca Airport is in error, especially the reading of 4 inches in one hour. The U of M Waseca manual gauge is about 1/2 mile away and has readings more representative of the area and what was seen on radar. The official gauge at the U of M Waseca site was 2.52 for the 21st and 7.64 inches on the 22nd for  two-day total of 10.16 inches.

This event was not classified as a "mega" rain event because it only had about 300-500 square miles of six inches or more.

We did have two mega-rains in Minnesota for 2016.


July 11-12 http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/climate/journal/160711_12_flood.html

and August 10-11 http://images.dnr.state.mn.us/natural_resources/climate/journal/160810_11_heavy_rain.jpg

Yes, this is the first time we have seen two "mega" rains in one year, there may have been other "mega" rains before 1973 that we have not been able to document.  The two events from 1866 and 1867 likely exceeded the "mega" rains that we saw this year."


7 Minnesota Mega-Rains Since 2000. Details from the Minnesota DNR and State Climate Office. They write: "...If we examine the period 1973-2016, Minnesota has seen ten mega-rains. However, of these ten, two were in the 1970s, one was in the 1980s, none were in the 1990s, but the 2000s saw three and the 2010s, still underway, has seen four. Indeed, the frequency of these potentially disastrous events has been increasing sharply, and 2016 became the first year on record with two mega-rains in the state. These trends are consistent with the expectation that Minnesota and the Upper Midwest will receive more precipitation, and more precipitation from large events, in response to increasing global temperatures and increased available moisture for passing storm systems..."


Slipping Into Autumn. The weather over the next few days looks fairly benign and pleasant; a temporary holding pattern will stall out a storm over Michigan for a couple of days, a weak ridge of high pressure treating Minnesota to intervals of sun, but clouds and showers increase as you drive east across Wisconsin. MSP Meteogram: WeatherBell.


Weather Model Fantasies, Version 1.0. Here is the 12z ECMWF solution for late next week, showing a major hurricane approaching south Florida. Wouldn't it be ironic if this verified and Big Weather became the "October Surprise"? I think the probability of a direct strike on Miami is small, but not zero. Map: WSI.


Weather Model Fantasies, Version 1.1. Not to be outdone by the European, NOAA's GFS simulation brings a major hurricane into the Mid Atlantic and New York City area. No, I don't believe this solution either, but I'm showing you this (now) to give you some sense of how problematic it is to look at weather models and make a credible forecast. During Sandy in 2012 the ECMWF gave about 8 days lead time that a strong tropical system would hook into New Jersey, 2-3 days more lead time than NOAA's models. But no model is perfect; we learned that (again) with Hermine, when even the ECMWF failed. We'll look at multiple models in the coming days to see if this is a fluke or a real trend. I wouldn't get too excited yet.



War-Tested HESCO Barriers Protecting Iowans from Floods. I found this sidebar from the Cedar Rapids, Iowa flooding story interesting; here's a clip from The Des Moines Register: "A war-zone staple has become an increasingly common sight in Iowa towns threatened by floodwaters. Hundreds of thousands of U.S. troops used HESCO barriers to protect themselves from bullets and bombs in Iraq and Afghanistan. Over the past week, similar barriers have been set up in Iowa as temporary flood walls. The barriers are giant boxes made of sturdy metal netting covered by a tough fabric. They fold up and can be stacked on pallets..."


Louisiana Flood of 2016 Made Worse by Growth-Focused Policies. A warmer, wetter climate was a big factor; so was overdevelopment, according to a story at NOLA.com in New Orleans: "There's nothing new about flooding in southeast Louisiana. But in the Baton Rouge area, at least, the devastation wreaked by heavy rains is getting worse. Suburban growth into areas with a history of flooding is putting more houses, businesses and lives at risk. Every new road, bridge, levee or other human-made structure further obstructs — and slows — the natural drainage patterns within the Amite River Basin, where the Amite and Comite rivers flow into Lake Pontchartrain. And long-discussed projects intended to mitigate flood damage in and around Baton Rouge remain under-funded and far from finished..." (File image: NOAA).


Weather-Wise, It Was a Summer of Extremes. Here's an excerpt of a summary at The Washington Post: "...Summer featured floods that killed hundreds of people and caused more than $50 billion in losses around the globe, from Louisiana to China, India, Europe and the Sudan. Meanwhile, droughts parched croplands and wildfires burned in California, Canada and India. Toss in record heat that went on and on. From June to August, there were at least 10 weather disasters that each caused more than $1 billion in losses, according to insurance industry tallies. With summer weather now seemingly stretching from May to September, extreme weather in that span killed more than 2,000 people. And that’s without a major hurricane hitting a big U.S. city, although the Pacific had its share of deadly and costly storms. “We’ve experienced an increasing number and a disturbing number of weather extremes this summer,” U.S. National Weather Service Director Louis Uccellini said..."

Photo credit: "Danny and Alys Messenger paddle a canoe away August 16 from their flooded home in Prairieville, Louisiana. The flooding was part of a summer that saw a lot of extreme weather." (Max Becherer/AP)


High-Tech Future Early Warning System for Hurricanes, Tornadoes and Volcanic Eruptions. Let's see if this holds up over time, but I found an article at phy.org potentially promising: "...We essentially verified many of the results from a long-term study by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) - but we substituted a ring laser in place of microphones," said Robert Dunn, professor of physics at Hendrix College. The group's ring laser wasa able to "clearly show the frequency spectrum of the infrasound," he said. Specifically, they were able to detect infrasound from tornadoes 30 minutes before the tornado funnel was on the ground. The group also determined that infrasound from a tornado can travel 1,000 kilometers - which confirms earlier studies by NOAA..."

File image: Camille Seaman.


Senate Weather Bill That Supports Forecast Improvement Can Benefit All Americans. Here's an excerpt of an Op-Ed at Capital Weather Gang: "Despite living in a world of intense political differences, nearly everyone can agree that timely, reliable and accurate weather information has great value. Proposed legislation in Congress would support important advances in weather prediction that would have enormous societal benefit. Sen. John Thune (R-S.D.) has sponsored a “Seasonal Forecasting Improvement Act” (S.1331), a bill that would complement the Weather Research and Forecasting Innovation Act of 2015 (H.R.1551) already passed by the House and sent to the Senate for consideration..."

"We essentially verified many of the results from a long-term study by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)—but we substituted a ring laser in place of microphones," said Robert Dunn, professor of physics at Hendrix College.

The group's ring laser was able to "clearly show the frequency spectrum of the infrasound," he said. Specifically, they were able to detect infrasound from tornadoes 30 minutes before the tornado funnel was on the ground. The group also determined that infrasound from a tornado can travel 1,000 kilometers—which confirms earlier studies by NOAA.



Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-09-high-tech-future-early-hurricanes-tornados.html#jCp

The Mind-Boggling New Orleans Heat Record That No One Is Talking About. Here's an excerpt at Capital Weather Gang: "During one of the country’s hottest summers, New Orleans quietly set a mind-boggling record. On 43 nights, the temperature did not drop below 80 degrees in New Orleans, according to the Louisiana state climatologist. It blows the previous record out of the water — 13 nights in 2010. It’s also incredible considering in an average summer, New Orleans has just 2.1 nights at or above 80 degrees. This record should be getting much more attention than it has been..."

Photo credit: "New Orleans has set an alarming record for warm overnight lows this year." (Joe Flood).


A Complete Run-Down Of All The Times Summer 2016's Weather Turned Weird and Violent. Here's an excerpt from Wunderblog: "...45 U.S. cities saw their hottest summers on record, according to the Southeast Regional Climate Center, and 53 additional cities barely missed their record-hottest summer. Including U.S. territories, the United States broke more than 8,800 daily hot nighttime temperature records from May to September. In addition, more than 6,300 record warm minimum temperatures were tied during that same period. Numerous cities, including Atlanta and Nashville, neared or broke records for the longest period of time spent above 70 degrees. In July, Kuwait and Iraq set new all-time temperature records for the Eastern Hemisphere; temperatures soared to a high of 129 degrees Fahrenheit..."

Map credit: The Weather Channel. "Locations with either their record hottest (orange dots) or second hottest (yellow dots) summer (June through August) on record in 2016. Locations with at least 60 years of data are shown." (Data: Southeast Regional Climate Center). 


Unsafe Air Pollution Levels Affect 9 in 10 People Globally, Report Says. Here's an excerpt from TIME: "More than 90% of the world’s population lives in areas with unsafe pollution levels, according to a new report. The research, conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO), underscores the growing risk that air pollution poses to virtually every demographic group across the globe. More than 6 million people died in 2012 from ailments related to air pollution, according to the WHO. “Air pollution continues take a toll on the health of the most vulnerable populations — women, children and the older adults,” said Flavia Bustreo, WHO assistant director general, in a statement. “For people to be healthy, they must breathe clean air from their first breath to their last...” (File image: National Park Service).



Transportation is Overtaking Electricity Generation as the Largest Source of U.S. CO2 Emissions. Here's an excerpt from The University of Michigan Energy Institute: "The average rate at which CO2 is emitted from vehicle tailpipes and other mobile sources has exceeded the rate of CO2 emissions from electric power plants over seven of the past eight months. These trends indicate that transportation will overtake electricity as the nation's largest source of CO2 emissions this year. Electric sector CO2 emissions have dropped greatly in recent years, declining at an average rate of 2.8 percent per year over 2007-2015. This reduction is due to the displacement of coal by natural gas, wind and solar for power production as well as energy efficiency gains..."


Cars Take Up Way Too Much Space in Cities. New Technology Could Change That. Vox has an intriguing story and vision for the future of our cities - here's an excerpt: "...The average car, two hulking tons of steel, is 80 percent empty when it’s being driven by a single person. And most of the day, cars are totally empty, sitting unused. That, of course, requires space for parking: There are a billion parking spots across the United States, four for every car in existence. Plus, there are all the paved roads crisscrossing our cities. Add it up, and many downtowns devote 50 to 60 percent of their scarce real estate to vehicles. It all seems rather inefficient and wasteful. If cities could reclaim even a fraction of this land from vehicles, they could build more housing, or stores, or parks, or plazas..."

Image credit: "An illustration from San Francisco’s Smart City proposal. On the left are streets currently occupied by cars and street parking. By shifting to shared, autonomous vehicles, much more area could be reclaimed for parks and housing." (SFMTA).



60 F. high on Tuesday in the Twin Cities.

67 F. average high on September 27.

82 F. high on September 27, 2015.

.04" rain fell at MSP International Airport yesterday.

September 28, 1983: Late summer-like temperatures arrive in Minnesota with 91 degrees at Montevideo and 90 degrees at Elbow Lake.

September 28, 1895: A 'furious wind' at Pleasant Mound in Blue Earth County blows down grain stacks and corn shocks.


TODAY: Mix of clouds & sun, cool breeze. Winds: N 8-13. High: 64

WEDNESDAY NIGHT: Clearing and cool. Low: 47

THURSDAY: Bright sun, a flawless sky. Winds: NE 7-12. High: 67

FRIDAY: Lukewarm sun, still postcard-perfect. Winds: NE 7-12. Wake-up: 48. High: 71

SATURDAY: Sunny start, patchy PM clouds. Winds: NE 7-12. Wake-up: 51. High: 68

SUNDAY: Partly sunny, extra-fine fall weather. Winds: E 5-10. Wake-up: 52. High: 69

MONDAY: Milder breeze as clouds increase, showers at night. Winds: SE 10-20. Wake-up: 55: High: 73

TUESDAY: Soggy again, showers and heavy T-storms. Winds: S 10-20. Wake-up: 61. High: 68


Climate Stories....

Climate Change is Here: Inside the Summer of Hell and High Water. Here's an excerpt from Rolling Stone: "...As California was gripped by fire, the hottest August in recorded history unleashed extreme weather events in every corner of the United States. Hawaii braced for an unprecedented "double hurricane," back-to-back systems that barreled down on the Big Island before passing just offshore. Then Hermine, the first hurricane to hit the Florida capital of Tallahassee since 1985, sent tropical-storm warnings north into New England. In Louisiana, an unnamed superstorm – a windless hurricane – dumped up to 30 inches of rain, killing at least 13 people and inundating more than 60,000 homes in dozens of parishes. A "weather autopsy" led by scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration linked the superstorm to climate change..."

Photo credit: "Firefighters build a fire line during the Blue Cut Fire in California's San Bernardino County in August."  Patrick T. Fallon/Zuma.


Global Warming is Real, but 13 Degrees? Not So Fast. NatGeo has details: "New research suggesting that the planet might already be committed to vastly greater warming than previously thought is being dismissed as deeply flawed by prominent climate scientists. A study published today in one of the world's top science journals, Nature, offers the most complete reconstruction to date of global sea-surface temperatures for the past two million years—a valuable addition to the climate record, scientists say. But the conclusions the study's author drew from that research—that even preventing any further increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere could still leave the Earth doomed to a catastrophic temperature rise of up to 7 degrees Celsius (about 13 degrees Fahrenheit)—isn't supported by the data, several top scientists said..."

Photo credit: "Greenland is among the regions of the Earth that are experiencing the most rapid changes from global warming. If a new study is correct, all of the planet's ice could melt in the coming centuries." Photograph by Diane Cook and Len Jenshel, National Geographic Creative.


 


Teaching Middle Schoolers Climate Change Without Terrifying Them. NPR reports: "...So, Vazquez says the next day in class she resolved to do more. The school where she teaches, George Washington Carver Middle School, sits just eight feet above sea level; several of the surrounding neighborhoods are even lower. She thought, by the time her students were adults with families of their own, storm surges could bring waves lapping at their front doors. "If we just despair, it leads to inactivity. So I thought, 'If they're doing positive things, it will be helpful,' " she saysAnd positive things they're doing..."

Image creditLA Johnson/NPR.

Wind-whipped PM showers possible later Tuesday; Sunny and better by Thursday

Friendly Storm From the Air

What an unreal picture from @CuePilot who is an airplane pilot and photographer based in Ecuador! He recently snapped this picture on his way home! WOW!

Windy Monday

Here's the visible satellite loop from Monday with wind gusts as well. First, note that widespread cloud cover and scattered rain showers enveloped much of northern Minnesota and Wisconsin for much of the day. Also note how many and how widespread the double digit wind gusts were yesterday.

 
Here's a list of all the tropical storm force wind gusts that were recorded on Monday!

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What's Happening At Hazeltine?

After several rounds of heavy rain over the past couple/few weeks, it appears that the weather will calm down just in time for one of the biggest golf events in the world! The big stage goes to Hazeltine National Golf Club located in Chaska, MN. It has been a pleasure watching and following Chris Tritabaugh @CT_turf  and his other crew members on twitter as he as his amazing crew have prepared for the Ryder Cup event this week. This is a picture that Chris posted on Monday as the sun was popping out after a very wet week last week.

Here's the crew taking care of the heavy rain last week. Note that Minneapolis airport alone has seen 5.43" of rain so far this month, which is 2.83" above average!

A Very Wet Stretch of Weather Leading up to Ryder Cup in Chaska

Take a look at this nugget from Micah Woods @asianturfgrass who found that from August 16th to September 20th 2016, 11 days had more than 0.25" of rain at Chaska, MN. According to his findings, that is the most of any year on record since 1925!


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A Wet September

Here's a snippet from Mark Seeley's WeatherTalk from Friday, September 23rd, which helps describe how much rainfall we've seen this month and so far this year in some places.

"This wet September continues a trend toward above normal precipitation. Some climate stations in Minnesota have already received over 40 inches of precipitation for the year. Further at least ten climate stations are on a pace to set a new record wet year, including St James with 40.59 inches (2nd wettest year in history), and Waseca with 48.68 inches (2nd wettest year in history), and over three months to go in 2016! It is also likely that the all-time state record wettest single year, 53.52 inches at St Francis (Anoka County) in 1991 will be broken before the end of this year."

See more from Mark Seeley HERE:

(Image below shows estimated rainfall since September 1st)

River Flooding Continues

Thanks to heavy rainfall last week, river flooding is still a big problem. Note that flood warnings continue along the Minnesota River as the river is expected to crest through the week ahead.

 

Wettest Meteorological Summer Record so Far (For Some)

According to NOAA, some locations across the central part of the country saw its wettest June through August (Meteorological Summer) on record. Note that some of these locations include parts of Minnesota, western Wisconsin and northeast Iowa.
 

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 Signs of Fall Closer to Home

Slowly, but surely signs of fall are beginning to pop up. A few more trees and bushes are beginning to turn color and over the few weeks, we will be inundated with brilliant colors everywhere!

 
Fall Color Update

The latest update from the MN DNR shows that we are well on our way in the fall color department with some 50% to 75% color being reported across parts of Central and Northwestern Minnesota. Note that only 10% to 25% color can be found across the Twin Cities; the average peak there is generally late September to mid October.

See more from the MN DNR HERE:


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Wind-whipped PM showers possible later Tuesday; Sunny and better by Thursday

I feel a little disheveled after yesterday's tropical storm force wind gusts blew into town. Thank goodness we weren't deeper into the fall color season or we'd have leaves blowing all over the place. That reminds me, where did I put my rake? I am going to need it soon.

A large area of low pressure centered over Ontario is responsible for this windy nonsense. While wind gusts won't be quite as strong as they were Monday, we'll still have a nagging breeze to combat as you meander about outdoors. The low clouds surrounding the storm system will also make an appearance again Tuesday with passing showers that will likely be present during the afternoon hours.

Winds taper a bit and the sun slowly peeks out on Wednesday, but temperatures will still require an extra layer as you head out the door.

I am happy to report that the extended forecast suggests an extended period of sunny, dry and mild weather Thursday through Sunday; good news for the Ryder Cup. Props to Hazeltine for handling all the rain last week, the course looks amazing!
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Extended Weather Outlook

TUESDAY: Low clouds return with a few wind-whipped showers. Winds: WNW 10-20. High: 60.

TUESDAY NIGHT: Showers end early. Winds: NNW 10. Low: 47

WEDNESDAY: More sun and not as windy. Winds: N 5-15. High: 62

THURSDAY: Mostly sunny. Nice, quiet day. Winds: ESE 5-10. Wake-up: 48. High: 68.

FRIDAY: Bright sun, a touch warmer. Winds: ESE 5-10. Wake-up: 49. High: 70.

SATURDAY: Mostly sunny, a few high clouds. Winds: ESE 5-10. Wake-up: 52. High: 70.

SUNDAY: Filtered sun, still looks dry. Winds: SE 5-15. Wake-up: 51. High: 70.

MONDAY: Increasing clouds. Stray storms late. Winds: SE 10-20. Wake-up: 51. High: 71
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This Day in Weather History
September 27th

1942: Minneapolis has a high temperature of only 40 degrees.

1898: A heat wave produces highs of 91 degrees at Beardsley and 90 at Moorhead.
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Average High/Low for Minneapolis
September 27th

Average High: 67F (Record: 88F set in 1987)
Average Low: 47F (Record: 29F set in 1991)
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Sunrise/Sunset Times for Minneapolis
September 27th

Sunrise: 7:07am
Sunset: 7:00pm

*Daylight Lost Since Yesterday: ~3mins & 6sec
*Daylight Lost Since Summer Solstice: ~3hours and 44mins
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Moon Phase for September 26th
2.7 Days Before New Moon

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Weather Outlook Tuesday

Tuesday will be another chilly day with highs across much of the state struggling to get to 60F. With gusty winds continuing, it'll feel even cooler than the actual high; very reminiscent of October!

Weather Outlook Tuesday

Winds on Tuesday will once again be quite breezy. Not as bad as Monday was, but it'll still be breezy with gusts up to 20 to 25 mph.

Weather Outlook Tuesday

The large area of low pressure responsible for the gusty winds across the region on Monday will begin sagging south into the Great Lakes region on Tuesday. Wrap around clouds and showers will be found across eastern Minnesota and most of Wisconsin.

 
Simulated Radar
 
The simulated radar from Tuesday to Thursday shows wrap around showers across northern Minnesota drifting south through the region PM Tuesday through early Wednesday. Note that most locations won't see much in terms of accumulation.
 

Rainfall Potential

Additional rainfall looks heaviest across northern Wisconsin. Some locations may see up to 0.5" or more, while locations closer to the Twin Cities will see much lighter amounts.

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Extended Weather Outlook

The extended temperature outlook over the next 10 days suggests temperatures dropping back down to below average levels through the middle part of next week in the wake of the cold front that moved through PM Saturday/AM Sunday. Slowly, temperatures climb to near average levels by the end of the week and into the first part of October!

6 to 10 Day Temp Outlook

According to NOAA's Climate Prediction Center, warmer than average temperatures look to sneak back into the Upper Midwest as we get into early October. However, temperatures over the next couple of days look a littler cooler and could require some longer sleeves.

6 to 10 Day Temp Outlook

Here's the national temperature outlook from October 2nd - 6th, which shows warmer than average conditions across the eastern two-thirds of the nation with cooler than average temperatures returning to places along the West Coast.

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National Weather Outlook

A large area of low pressure will slowly slide through the Great Lakes on Tuesday and Wednesday with colder temperatures, low clouds and spotty showers. The storm seems to almost stall in the Ohio Valley, which will prolong heavier rainfall potential across the East Coast.

Precipitation Outlook

After a notably wet week across the Central U.S. last week, there appears to be an extended period of dry weather. Heavier rainfall looks to move into parts of the Northeast where they could use the rain. Some spots there could see 2" to 4" of rain or more through the end of the week.

Precipitation Needed to end Drought in the Northeast
 
The good news is that the rain will be much needed in the Northeast as some locations need nearly 5" to 9" or more to end the drought. 
 
 
Northeast Drought Monitor
 
According to the U.S. Drought Monitor, nearly 69% of the region is considered to be abnormally dry, while 16% of the region is in a severe drought and 5% is in an extreme drought, including Boston, MA
 

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Tracking the Tropics

The National Hurricane Center is keeping a close eye on this particular wave of energy as it drifts closer to the Caribbean. As of PM Monday, it has a high probability of tropical formation within the next 5 day.

 

Watching the Tropics

Some of the latest model guidance suggests that this system will gain tropical storm strength within the next couple of days, while some also suggests that this storm could become a hurricane! Stay tuned...

 

Watching the Tropics

Here's a host of different models and solutions, which show a range in its path from just north of South America to east of the East Coast.

 

Atlantic 5 Day Outlook

According to NOAA's NHC, the 5 day outlook suggests a HIGH chance of tropical formation with a wave of energy drifting closer to the Caribbean. With the continued northwest track, this storm is worth watching... Stay tuned.
 

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"Earth Could Reach Critical Climate Threshold in a Decade, Scientists Warn"
 
"Speaking at a University of Oxford conference this week, led by leading UK climate researcher Richard Betts, scientists said global greenhouse gas emissions are not likely to slow down quickly enough to avoid passing the 1.5°C target. The goal of limiting global warming to 1.5°C was agreed to in the landmark Paris agreementnegotiated by 195 nations last year. But the planet is continuing to experience unprecedented heat month after month, setting 2016 on track to be the hottest year ever recorded. In fact, the scientists said, Earth is currently on a trajectory to hit at least 2.7°C in global temperature rise. Pete Smith, a plant and soil scientist at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland, said mass lifestyle change must be undertaken to combat rising temperatures, such as developing more sustainable diets, reducing food waste and red meat intake, and importing fewer greenhouse gas-heavy vegetables. "There are lots of behavioral changes required, not just by the government ... but by us," he said. He also warned that controversial geoengineering techniques such as sunlight blocking could become the norm in some countries. The warning came the same day that Oil Change International released a report that found we have 17 years left to get off fossil fuels, or else face unprecedented and irreversible climate catastrophe."
 

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Thanks for checking in and don't forget to follow me on Twitter @TNelsonWX