A team of researchers reported in Current Biology that bedbugs originated at least 100 million years ago, when dinosaurs roamed Earth. The discovery upends the established timeline, and could help to anticipate the pest’s next moves.

Many molecules create chocolate’s aroma

Researchers revealed that dark chocolate’s aroma comes down to 25 molecules, in just the right concentrations. Chocolates with cacao contents from 90% to 99% yielded 77 compounds that could contribute to its aroma — but many were at levels too low to be detected by the human nose. If you looked at a list of what each molecule smells like individually, you might notice something surprising. For instance, acetic acid, the odor molecule present in the highest levels in the chocolates, smells like vinegar by itself. And 3-methylbutanoic acid has a rancid, sweaty stench. Dimethyl trisulfide smells like cabbage. But these and other compounds work together to attach to receptors in the nose and mouth to create a neural chord that says not “cabbage” or “sweat” or “vinegar,” but “chocolate.” Specifically, in this case, “very dark chocolate.”