Hurricane Michael Takes Aim at Florida Panhandle
We escape to the Florida Panhandle every February, just to keep some semblance of sanity. We like a spot between Destin and Panama City. Palm trees and pine trees. No high-rise condos. It's quiet and relatively empty during midwinter; not as balmy or busy as Ft. Myers, but 50s and 60s still feel great.
With Hurricane Michael about to make landfall, my 88-year old dad had an observation. "Yes, it gets cold where you live, but come March your house will still be in place, undamaged."
I've tracked weather for 45 years, but I still can't imagine tracking a Texas-size whirlwind, wondering if your home will survive the encounter.
Michael arrives as a Category 4 storm, with winds near 140-150 mph and a 5-10 foot storm surge near Panama City, Florida. Flooding is possible into the Carolinas, where people are recovering from Hurricane Florence.
Rain tapers later today, followed by a colder wind. Much of the immediate metro will see the first frost/freeze Friday morning.
A family of clippers keep us chilly into the first half of next week, but a few 60s may return within 8-14 days.
That would be very nice.
Wednesday Morning visible image: NOAA and AerisWeather.
Chilly End to October. After a mild blip the third week of October long range (GFS) guidance shows a return of colder-than-average temperatures for much of the USA east of the Rockies the last week of this month.
Is Rainy Weather Muting Fall Colors? A story at Star Tribune caught my eye; here's a clip: "...Strong sunshine helps fill leaves with a pigment, anthocyanin, that’s responsible for red and crimson colors. The best fall display usually comes with warm days, bright sunshine, and cool nights. The state is behind where it should be with fall colors, but that can change very quickly, Cervenka said. “If we get lots of sunlight next week and drops in temperature, we may see — all of a sudden — things turning. Keep your eye on those maples,” she said. The rainfall could be good for trees as winter approaches, said Jennifer Teegarden, DNR forestry outreach specialist. “As long as it’s not in standing water, this is actually good for the trees. Trees have a better survival rate if they go into the winter well watered,” she said..."
Praedictix Briefing: Issued Wednesday morning, October 10th, 2018:
- Michael has continued to strengthen across the Gulf of Mexico overnight, becoming a dangerous Category 4 hurricane with winds of 145 mph.
- Rain bands and gusty winds are already being felt ahead of the landfall across the Florida Panhandle, with recent gusts of 56 mph in Apalachicola and 43 mph in Panama City.
- Not much has changed in the expected path - or overall impacts - from Michael. This system will make landfall later today around midday along the Florida Panhandle as a major hurricane with destructive winds, heavy rain, and life-threatening storm surge. Michael is expected to strengthen a little more before landfall occurs.
- If the forecast holds, this will be the first hurricane of Category 4+ strength to make landfall along the Florida Panhandle in recorded history. The entire Florida Gulf Coast north of Punta Gorda has never had a Category 4 or higher storm make landfall.
- The strongest winds of 100+ mph are expected near the coast in the Panama City and Apalachicola areas as Michael approaches and makes landfall later today. These winds will cause power outages as well as structural and tree damage. Strong wind gusts will start to decrease the further inland you go, but wind gusts of at least 30 mph are expected along the path of Michael into the Mid-Atlantic tomorrow.
- Water levels are already rising along the Florida coast this morning. A dangerous, life-threatening storm surge is expected along the Florida coast as Michael approaches. The worst storm surge flooding will occur along the immediate coastline near and east of where the center makes landfall with the National Hurricane Center expecting a storm surge of 9-13 feet from Tyndall Air Force Base to Keaton Beach, including Apalachee Bay south of Tallahassee.
- A wide swath of 4-10” of rain is possible from the Florida Panhandle to southeastern Virginia in association with Michael. The heaviest rain amounts – where isolated 12” amounts could occur – will be across parts of the Florida Panhandle, southeast Alabama, and southwest Georgia. This rain could lead to life-threatening flash flooding across the region. Flash Flood Watches are in effect.
Michael On Satellite. Dangerous Hurricane Michael is looking impressive on satellite this morning, with an eye that is about 23 miles in diameter. Michael has continued to strengthen as well, containing sustained winds of 145 mph as of 8 AM CT. As of that time, the center of Michael was about 80 miles south-southwest of Panama City, FL, or about 85 miles west-southwest of Apalachicola, FL, and moving to the north at 10 mph.
Michael Sitting Just Offshore. You can see the eye - and the entire system - approaching the Florida Panhandle on radar as well. Outer rain bands have started to impact the region this morning with occasionally heavy rain and gusty winds. Already wind gusts of 56 mph in Apalachicola and 43 mph in Panama City have been reported since midnight.
Water Levels Already Rising Along The Florida Coast. As Michael pushes closer to land, water levels are quickly rising across the coast of the Florida Panhandle. The Gulf of Mexico Tide Gauge at Apalachicola already shows water levels at around 5 feet this morning – in moderate flood stage.
Close Up Track Of Michael. Michael will make landfall along the Florida Panhandle (somewhere near Panama City) during the midday hours today as a very powerful Category 4 hurricane. A turn to the northeast is expected today and that motion will continue into Thursday, which will bring a weaker system into central Georgia by early Thursday morning.
Zoomed Out Michael Track. Michael will then continue to weaken as it moves over parts of the Southeast and Mid-Atlantic Thursday, positioning itself just off the North Carolina/Virginia shoreline early Friday morning. While it will strengthen after that time, it will also be over the open waters of the Atlantic, passing south of Nova Scotia Friday Night into Saturday.
Hurricane Warnings Continue. Hurricane Warnings continue across parts of the Florida Panhandle, southeastern Alabama, and southwestern Georgia this morning ahead of Michael. This area has the greatest potential of hurricane-force wind gusts (74+ mph) over the next 12 to 24 hours. Tropical Storm Watches and Warnings are also in effect across parts of the Southeast and Mid-Atlantic. Breaking down cities that are under tropical alerts this morning:
- Hurricane Warnings are in effect for Pensacola, Panama City, Apalachicola, and Tallahassee (FL), Dothan (AL), and Bainbridge, Albany, Moultrie, and Tifton (GA).
- Tropical Storm Warnings are in effect for Mobile and Troy (AL), Macon, Dublin, Augusta, and Savannah (GA), Columbia, Charleston, Myrtle Beach, and Florence (SC), as well as Wilmington and Lumberton (NC).
- Tropical Storm Watches are in effect for Gulfport and Biloxi (MS), Tampa (FL), Rock Hill (SC), Fayetteville, Greenville, Jacksonville and Hatteras (NC).
In coastal regions here is where tropical alerts are in place:
A Hurricane Warning is in effect for...
* Alabama/Florida border to Suwannee River Florida
A Tropical Storm Warning is in effect for...
* Alabama/Florida border to the Mississippi/Alabama border
* Suwanee River Florida to Chassahowitzka Florida
* North of Fernandina Beach Florida to Surf City North Carolina
A Tropical Storm Watch is in effect for...
* Chassahowitzka to Anna Maria Island Florida, including Tampa Bay
* Mississippi/Alabama border to the Mouth of the Pearl River
* Surf City North Carolina to Duck North Carolina
* Pamlico and Albemarle Sounds
Destructive Winds Likely. The strongest winds are expected near the coast as Michael approaches and makes landfall later today, with wind gusts over 100 mph expected for areas like Apalachicola and Panama City. These winds will cause power outages as well as structural and tree damage. Wind gusts start to decrease below hurricane force the further you head inland, with Albany, GA, expected to see a peak gust of 64 mph.
Strong Winds Expected Along The Track. Even though Michael will weaken as the system moves inland across the Southeast and Mid-Atlantic, strong winds gusts of at least 30 mph will be possible from Georgia to coastal North Carolina. This is the reason that Tropical Storm Watches and Warnings extend all the way to the Mid-Atlantic. The stronger wind gusts would be capable of power outages and fallen trees, especially due to the already saturated soils across parts of the Mid-Atlantic.
Timing Out The Winds – Tyndall Air Force Base. Some of the strongest wind gusts are expected in the Panama City area during the early and mid-afternoon hours, with wind gusts over 130 mph at times. The dip you see in the 2 PM hour would be the eye passing over the region, with winds picking back up on the other side of the eyewall.
Storm Surge Potential. One of the most dangerous aspects of Michael continues to be the storm surge flood potential. The worst storm surge flooding will occur along the immediate coastline near and east of where the center makes landfall. The National Hurricane Center is expecting a storm surge of 9-13 feet from Tyndall Air Force Base to Keaton Beach, including Apalachee Bay south of Tallahassee. The combination of this dangerous storm surge and the high tide will result in the following peak surges at the time of high tide:
Tyndall Air Force Base FL to Keaton Beach FL...9-13 ft
Okaloosa/Walton County Line FL to Tyndall Air Force Base FL...6-9 ft
Keaton Beach FL to Cedar Key FL...6-9 ft
Cedar Key FL to Chassahowitzka FL...4-6 ft
Chassahowitzka to Anna Maria Island FL including Tampa Bay...2-4 ft
Storm Surge Alerts. Due to the potential of storm surge flooding with Michael, Storm Surge Warnings are in effect from Okaloosa/Walton County Line to Anclote River, and Storm Surge Watches are in effect from Anclote River to Anna Maria Island, including Tampa Bay.
Heavy Rain Potential. Heavy rain will also fall as Michael approaches and moves across the Southeast and Mid-Atlantic over the next couple of days. A wide swath of 4-10” of rain is possible from the Florida Panhandle to southeastern Virginia in association with Michael. The heaviest rain amounts – where isolated 12” amounts could occur – will be across parts of the Florida Panhandle, southeast Alabama, and southwest Georgia. This rain could lead to life-threatening flash flooding across the region.
Flash Flood Watches. With the heavy rain potential, Flash Flood Watches are in effect from Florida into southeast Maryland. These watches include cities like Tallahassee and Panama City (FL), Dothan and Enterprise (AL), Albany, Macon, Augusta, and Athens (GA), Columbia, Greenville and Florence (SC), Charlotte, Raleigh, and Wilmington (NC), as well as Norfolk and Danville (VA).
Tornado Watch Until 5 PM ET. Landfalling tropical systems also pose the potential of producing tornadoes. Due to the potential of a few tornadoes today, a Tornado Watch has been issued for parts of Florida and Georgia (including the cities of Tallahassee and Panama City (FL) as well as Albany and Valdosta (GA)) until 5 PM ET.
D.J. Kayser, Meteorologist, Praedictix
Why Are These Tiny Towns Getting So Much Hurricane Harvey Aid? Citylab takes a look at possible cases of inequality when it comes to recovering from a biblical flood: "...Across Southeast Texas, residents in a handful of small, white, affluent towns stand to reap far more Harvey recovery funds than those just a few miles away, in far more populous but poorer majority-minority cities—resulting in huge racial disparities in the distribution of recovery funds. According to experts, the gap reflects the process by which the state and region divvy up disaster recovery dollars, a formula that puts place before people. “The Southeast Texas [method of distribution] is by far the most problematic of all the methods of distribution,” says Amelia Adams, a fair housing and disaster-recovery researcher and community planner for the Texas Low Income Housing Information Service..."
Photo credit: "David Goldman/AP.
As Storms Keep Coming, FEMA Spends Billions in "Cycle" of Damage and Repair. What's that old adage about insanity: doing the same thing over and over again - expecting different results? Here's an excerpt from The New York Times: "...FEMA’s public assistance program has provided at least $81 billion in this manner to state, territorial and local governments in response to disasters declared since 1992, according to a New York Times analysis of federal data. But an examination of projects across the country’s ever-expanding flood zones reveals that decisions to rebuild in place, often made seemingly in defiance of climate change, have at times left structures just as defenseless against the next storm. Other efforts have required enormously expensive engineering to ensure protection. Yet in some instances, restrictions on construction in flood plains have effectively prohibited FEMA from safeguarding its multimillion-dollar investments in new and repaired public buildings..."
Photo credit: "The Plaquemines Parish Detention Center was rebuilt for $105 million in a Louisiana marsh that had been ravaged by Hurricane Katrina." Credit: Edmund D. Fountain for The New York Times
Crop Quality Hurt by Rains. Although this post is focused on Iowa, similar concerns are cropping up over southern Minnesota. Here's an excerpt from Iowa State University Integrated Crop Management: "This year continues the chain of years with unusual harvest conditions driven by rapid weather changes in the latter part of the growing season. In mid August, crops were significantly ahead of schedule in terms of maturity. Heat and moisture in May and June accelerated the pace of development, to the point that signs of maturity were evident by the 15th of August. Rains followed by above average temperatures began over Labor Day weekend, and have been repeated nearly every weekend to date. The forecast for the weekend of October 7 is more of the same – very heavy rains with intermittent warm, sunny and high humidity periods. The 2018 crop is now at a point where the wet conditions are affecting quality. In some areas, flooded streams inundated mature crops. Please see this ICM News article written on September 27, for guidance in handling these crops. Corn moisture contents vary widely but field mold is showing up. Most field molds grow on corn after blacklayer; rapid drydown normally prevents significant further problems..."
The Big Hack: How China Used a Tiny Chip to Infiltrate U.S. Companies. If you haven't read this story at Bloomberg, do yourself a favor and unpack the implications. Here's an excerpt: "One country in particular has an advantage executing this kind of attack: China, which by some estimates makes 75 percent of the world’s mobile phones and 90 percent of its PCs. Still, to actually accomplish a seeding attack would mean developing a deep understanding of a product’s design, manipulating components at the factory, and ensuring that the doctored devices made it through the global logistics chain to the desired location—a feat akin to throwing a stick in the Yangtze River upstream from Shanghai and ensuring that it washes ashore in Seattle. “Having a well-done, nation-state-level hardware implant surface would be like witnessing a unicorn jumping over a rainbow,” says Joe Grand, a hardware hacker and the founder of Grand Idea Studio Inc. “Hardware is just so far off the radar, it’s almost treated like black magic.” But that’s just what U.S. investigators found: The chips had been inserted during the manufacturing process, two officials say, by operatives from a unit of the People’s Liberation Army..."
Illustration credit: Scott Gelber for Bloomberg Businessweek.
"A Jobless Future is Coming - We Must Prepare Now." A story at South China Morning Post caught my eye: "...But it is not China that, Lee believes, other countries should be worried about, and he wants to use his influence to prepare the world for the imminent AI revolution. By Lee’s estimates, automation will take up to 40 to 50 per cent of jobs globally, and governments need to be prepared...With any one of these jobs, AI can contribute by becoming an analytical engine, so that people can do what they do best, which is paying attention to people. So that is probably the only category large enough to absorb the migration of jobs. I think over the next 15 to 25 years that will include things like social entrepreneurship, impact investing, volunteerism. It also forced smaller countries to think if China and India will not be the blue-collar service for the world, what are the service options that remain..."
Photo credit: AFP.
After Budget Cuts, the IRS' Work Against Tax Cheats is Facing "Collapse". Here's an excerpt from an explainer at ProPublica: "...Tax evasion is at the center of the criminal cases against two associates of the president, Paul Manafort and Michael Cohen. The sheer scale of their efforts to avoid paying the government has given rise to a head-scratching question: How were they able to cheat the Internal Revenue Service for so many years? The answer, researchers and former government auditors say, is simple. The IRS pursues fewer cases of tax evasion than it did less than 10 years ago. Provided you’re not a close associate of President Donald Trump, there may never be a better time to be a tax cheat. Last year, the IRS’s criminal division brought 795 cases in which tax fraud was the primary crime, a decline of almost a quarter since 2010. “That is a startling number,” Don Fort, the chief of criminal investigations for the IRS, acknowledged at an NYU tax conference in June..."
Is Fasting the Fountain of Youth? Which brings up the "quantity vs. quality of life argument". Kale vs. cheeseburger. Not sure. Here's a clip from CNN.com: "...Research involving animals has revealed that intermittent fasting can reduce the risk of obesity and its related diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes and cancer. According to Mark Mattson, chief of the Laboratory of Neurosciences at the National Institute on Aging, research from the 1980s revealed that the lifespan of rats increases substantially when they fast every other day, compared to rats who have food available at all times. A much more recent study, published this month, found that mice who fasted, whether because they were fed all of their calories only once per day or because their calories were restricted, which naturally caused them to eat all of their limited food at once -- were healthier and lived longer compared to mice who had constant access to food..."
Image credit: Harvard Medical School.
Take a Nap to Sharpen Your Brain, Suggests New Science. It's official, napping is good. Can we all agree on that? Details via Big Think: "...A nap can help with how we process and react to information. Researchers from the University of Bristol in the U.K discovered that even a short period of sleep allows our brains to interpret unconscious information that is not part of our usual awareness. For the study, the scientists recruited sixteen participants of varying ages. Since prior research established that sleep helps problem solving, the researchers probed whether a conscious mental process is necessary before or during sleep to help with that...This indicated that sleep was responsible for inducing improvement in tasks that were processed unconsciously. The researchers conclude that even a bit of sleep can go a long way in helping us deal deeper with information that comes at us during waking hours..."
Instinct Can Beat Analytical Thinking. It turns out there is something to rumors of a "6th sense". Harvard Business Review has an interesting story: "...It is not, however, the only lens through which to view decision-making. Psychologist Gerd Gigerenzer has spent his career focusing on the ways in which we get things right, or could at least learn to. In Gigerenzer’s view, using heuristics, rules of thumb, and other shortcuts often leads to better decisions than the models of “rational” decision-making developed by mathematicians and statisticians. At times this belief has led the managing director of the Max Planck Institute for Human Development in Berlin into pretty fierce debates with his intellectual opponents. It has also led to a growing body of fascinating research, and a growing library of books for lay readers, the latest of which, Risk Savvy: How to Make Good Decisions, is just out..."
Kelly, the Sassy Dolphin. Do animals have personalities? After reading this story at Hakai Magazine, I'm beginning to think the answer is a resounding yes: "...It turns out that this is a heated debate in animal psychology: do animals even have personality to begin with? For centuries, scientists refused to use the term to describe animal behaviors. The word itself indicates the reason: you can’t spell personality without the word person. Instead, researchers talked about temperament and behavioral syndromes and reward systems. But in the past 15 years, more and more scientists have started entertaining the idea that animals might indeed have their own distinct and stable personalities. “It makes evolutionary sense,” says Lauren Highfill, who’s written several papers on animal personalities. “You wouldn’t really want to have all dolphins in a social group behave in exactly the same way.” You need a bold one, for example, who’s willing to go check things out and give the all-clear. But a group full of fearless types, swimming right into shark-infested waters without a care in the world, would be an evolutionary disadvantage. “Just like with humans, it’s nice that we have different personalities,” Highfill says..."
Photo credit: "Kelly—a dolphin with a big “personality”—has been in show business for about four decades, most recently at the Atlantis resort in the Bahamas." Photo courtesy of Atlantis.
.42" rain fell Tuesday at MSP.
50 F. maximum temperature yesterday in the Twin Cities.
61 F. average high on October 9.
57 F. high on October 9, 2017.
October 10, 1977: A few locations receive early accumulating snow, including Minneapolis with 2.5 inches, Gaylord with 2 inches, and Jordan with 2 inches.
October 10, 1970: Early snowfall is recorded in west central Minnesota. Snow totals range from a trace to 4.2 inches in Benson. Other areas include Montevideo with 4 inches, Canby with 3.2 inches, Morris with 2.6 inches, and Willmar with 2.5 inches. New London, New Ulm, and Buffalo all recorded 2 inches of snowfall.
October 10, 1949: An incredibly strong low pressure system brings hurricane force winds across Minnesota. This was possibly the strongest non-thunderstorm wind event seen in Minnesota. Top winds are clocked at 100 mph at Rochester, with a gust of 89 mph at the Twin Cities International Airport. 4 deaths and 81 injuries are reported. Numerous store windows are broken, and large chimneys toppled. The top 10 floors of the Foshay building are evacuated with the tenants feeling seasick from the swaying building.
October 10, 1928: Record high temperatures are set across central Minnesota with highs in the upper 80s to lower 90s.
WEDNESDAY: Periods of rain. Winds: NW 8-13. High: 52
WEDNESDAY NIGHT: Showers taper. Low: 36
THURSDAY: Mostly cloudy with a cold wind. Winds: NW 15-25+ High: near 40
FRIDAY: Early frost/freeze. Dribbles of sunshine. Winds: NW 8-13. Wake-up: 30. High: 45
SATURDAY: Clouds increase, breezy. Winds: SW 10-15. Wake-up: 38. High: 56
SUNDAY: Scrappy clouds, windy and cold. Winds: NW 15-25. Wake-up: 37. High: 43
MONDAY: Mostly cloudy, jackets linger. Winds: SW 10-15. Wake-up: 32. High: 47
TUESDAY: Windchill returns. Few snow flurries? Winds: NW 15-25. Wake-up: 39. High: 41
Why the Newest Nobel Laureate is Optimistic About Beating Climate Change. Just when I was feeling blue along comes a timely post at Quartz: "...At a press conference after the announcement, Romer was asked about his thoughts on the climate-change report and whether it is too late to do anything. “It’s entirely possible for humans to produce less carbon,” he said. “There will be some tradeoffs, but once we begin to produce [fewer] carbon emissions we’ll be surprised that it wasn’t as hard as it was anticipated.” Economic theory posits that, as finite resources are consumed their prices should go up. Yet, Romer points out that over the past 200 years economies have grown while the prices of most commodities—including aluminum, copper, lead, tin, zinc, and crude oil—have remained relatively flat. More productive, efficient, and innovative economies have been able to squeeze more growth out of the same inputs over time..."
Photo credit: "There are two kinds of optimism." Reuters/Mike Segar.
Major Climate Report Describes a Strong Risk of Crisis as Early as 2014. The New York Times reports: "A landmark report from the United Nations’ scientific panel on climate change paints a far more dire picture of the immediate consequences of climate change than previously thought and says that avoiding the damage requires transforming the world economy at a speed and scale that has “no documented historic precedent.” The report, issued on Monday by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a group of scientists convened by the United Nations to guide world leaders, describes a world of worsening food shortages and wildfires, and a mass die-off of coral reefs as soon as 2040 — a period well within the lifetime of much of the global population. The report “is quite a shock, and quite concerning,” said Bill Hare, an author of previous I.P.C.C. reports and a physicist with Climate Analytics, a nonprofit organization..."
A link to the latest IPCC report is here.
The World Has Just Over a Decade to Get Climate Change Under Control, UN Scientists Say. More perspective on the latest IPCC report from The Washington Post: "...With global emissions showing few signs of slowing and the United States — the world’s second-largest emitter of carbon dioxide — rolling back a suite of Obama-era climate measures, the prospects for meeting the most ambitious goals of the 2015 Paris agreement look increasingly slim. To avoid racing past warming of 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) over preindustrial levels would require a “rapid and far-reaching” transformation of human civilization at a magnitude that has never happened before, the group found. “There is no documented historic precedent” for the sweeping change to energy, transportation and other systems required to reach 1.5 degrees Celsius, the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) wrote in a report requested as part of the 2015 Paris climate agreement..."
Photo credit: "
Scientists might want to write in capital letters, 'ACT NOW, IDIOTS,' but they need to say that with facts and numbers," said Kaisa Kosonen, of Greenpeace, who was an observer at the negotiations. "And they have." The researchers have used these facts and numbers to paint a picture of the world with a dangerous fever, caused by humans. We used to think if we could keep warming below two degrees this century, then the changes we would experience would be manageable. Not any more. This new study says that going past 1.5C is dicing with the planet's liveability. And the 1.5C temperature "guard rail" could be exceeded in just 12 years, in 2030..."
Image credit: NASA ISS.
Covering This "Like It's The Only Story That Matters". The Washington Post weighs in with an Op-Ed; here's a clip: "...But it will need sustained emphasis, by the media and the public, all over the world, if we stand a chance of maintaining a livable planet. “A bracing reminder that every issue we devote attention to other than climate change is really a secondary issue,” wrote Philip Gourevitch, author and New Yorker staff writer, on Twitter about the report. And The Post quoted Erik Solheim, executive director of the U.N. Environment Program: “It’s like a deafening, piercing smoke alarm going off in the kitchen. We have to put out the fire.” That will be very much against the grain for the distraction-prone media and the news-weary public..."
Climate Change Will Get Worse. These Investors Are Betting On It. Bloomberg Businessweek has the story: "A top investment strategist for JPMorgan Asset Management sent a note to clients earlier this year with a dire forecast. Despite global efforts to stop climate change, sea levels are likely to rise dramatically, threatening the 40 percent of Americans who live along the coast. On the other hand, there will probably be some investment opportunities in seawalls. “A storm surge barrier system protecting New York City and parts of New Jersey could cost $2.7 million per meter,” Michael Cembalest, the asset manager’s chairman of market and investment strategy, wrote in his annual “Eye on the Market” energy newsletter in April. He added that governments would probably struggle to pay that cost, perhaps turning to either bonds or outright privatization..."